What are some functions of the respiratory system?
Acid base balance
Protection from infection
Communication via speech
What is the gas exchange that takes place?
Oxygen added to the blood from the air
Carbon dioxide removed from the blood into the air
How does speech occur?
Larynx vibrating and manipulating air
Does speech occur on inspiration or expiration?
In basic terms, why do we breathe?
We need oxygen for energy, which fuels cells and allows them to perform their functions
What would being unable to breathe oxygen do to us?
Our cells would die, and then we would die
How can enery be produced without oxygen, and why is this not feasible long term?
Anaerobic respiration, but this does not produce enough energy
What is produced when oxygen is burned?
CO2 as waste
What is external respiration?
Oxygen going in and out of the body
What is internal/cellular respiration?
Biochemical process within cells
What vessel carries blood from the heart to the lungs and is this oxygenated?
Pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood
What vessel carries blood from the lungs to the heart and is this oxygenated?
Pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
What two systems does external respiration require integration of?
Respiratory and cardiovascular
What are the exchanges of oxygen present once we intake air?
1) Between atmosphere and lung (alveoli)
2) Between lungs and blood
3) Between the blood and cells (transported to cells in the blood)
What are alveoli?
Regions of the lung that are thin enough to allow gas exchange
What are arteries?
Vessels that carries blood away from the heart
What are veins?
Vessels that carries blood towards the heart
What are the two kinds of circulation relevent to the lungs?
How does pulmonary circulation and systemic cirulation contrast each other?
Pulmonary delivers CO2 and picks up oxygen
Systemic delivers O2 and picks up CO2
Which of the pulmonary vein and artery carries oxygenated blood?
What displays the intimate relationship between the respiratory and cardiovasular systems during an increase in energy demand?
Rate and depth of breathing increase (more oxygen acquired and carbon dioxide diposed of)
Heart rate and force of contraction increases (delivered to muscle and waste removed quicker)
Why can gas exchange only take place in capillaries?
The walls are thin enough to allow it
Where are the 2 places that gas exchange occurs in the respiratory system?
What is oxygen and CO2 exchange like in steady state?
Net volume of oxygen and CO2 exchange in the lung per unit of time is equal to the net exchange at the tissue
What are the average volumes of O2 and CO2 exchanged per minute?
250ml of oxygen
200ml of CO2
What are the typical breathing rate of someone at rest and at maximum exercise?
10-20 breaths/min at rest
40-45 breaths/min at maximum exercise
What is A?
What is B?
What is C?