What is a pulmonary embolism?
Thrombus forms in the venous system, usually in deep vains of the legs and embolises to the pulmonary arteries
How many hospital admissions are due to pulmonary embolisms?
What can be the consequences of a massive pulmonary embolism?
Can be fatal
What can minor pulmonary embolisms be treated with and how is the prognosis?
Anticoagulation and have a very good prognosis
Where do pulmonary embolisms usually originate?
Deep vains in the legs
What are major risk factors of venous thromboembolisms?
Recent major trauma
Significant cardiopulmonary disease
What are symptoms of pulmonary embolism?
Pleuritic chest pain, cough and haemoptysis
Isolated acute dyspnoea
Syncope or cardiac arrest
What is haemoptysis?
Coughing up blood
What is coughing up blood known as?
What is dyspnoea?
Shortness of breath
What is shortness of breath called?
What is a syncope?
Temporary loss of consciousness
What is a temporary loss of consciousness called?
What are the signs of a pulmonary embolism?
Pyrexia, pleural rub, stony dullness to percussion at base
Tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypoxia
Tachycardia, hypotension, tachypnoea, hypoxia
What is tachypnoea?
Abnormally rapid breathing
What is abnormally rapid breathing called?
What does VTE stand for?
What is a venous thromboembolism?
Condition in which a blood clot forms most often in the deep veins of the legs, groin or arm
What is used pre-test to determine the probability of a pulmonary embolism?
Revised Geneva score
What does the well score include?
Includes symptoms and signs of venous thromboembolism, previous venous thromboembolism and risk factors
What does the revised Geneva score include?
Based on risk factors, symptoms and signs
What investigations can be done for pulmonary embolism?
Full blood count, biochemistry, blood gases
CT pulmonary angiogram
Consider CT abdomen and mammography
Consider thrombophilia testing
What is an angiogram?
Used to visualise the inside of the lumen or vessels of the body
What is used to visualise the inside of the lumen or vessels of the body?
What does the mortality at 30 days vary between?
What is used to determine the mortality of patients with pulmonary embolism?
Pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) score
What is the pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) score based on?
What does the treatment of pulmonary embolism include?
Low molecular weight heparin (such as dalteparin)
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC)
What is an example of a low molecular weight heparin?
What are examples of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC)?