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Flashcards in Pulmonary Vascular Disease Deck (77)
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1

What is a pulmonary embolism?

Thrombus forms in the venous system, usually in deep vains of the legs and embolises to the pulmonary arteries

2

How many hospital admissions are due to pulmonary embolisms?

1%

3

What can be the consequences of a massive pulmonary embolism?

Can be fatal

4

What can minor pulmonary embolisms be treated with and how is the prognosis?

Anticoagulation and have a very good prognosis

5

Where do pulmonary embolisms usually originate?

Deep vains in the legs

6

What are major risk factors of venous thromboembolisms?

Recent major trauma

Recent surgery

Cancer

Significant cardiopulmonary disease

Pregnancy

Inherited thrombophilia

7

What are symptoms of pulmonary embolism?

Pleuritic chest pain, cough and haemoptysis

Isolated acute dyspnoea

Syncope or cardiac arrest

8

What is haemoptysis?

Coughing up blood

9

What is coughing up blood known as?

Haemoptysis

10

What is dyspnoea?

Shortness of breath

11

What is shortness of breath called?

Dyspnoea

12

What is a syncope?

Temporary loss of consciousness

13

What is a temporary loss of consciousness called?

Syncope

14

What are the signs of a pulmonary embolism?

Pyrexia, pleural rub, stony dullness to percussion at base

Tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypoxia

Tachycardia, hypotension, tachypnoea, hypoxia

15

What is tachypnoea?

Abnormally rapid breathing

16

What is abnormally rapid breathing called?

Tachypnoea

17

What does VTE stand for?

Venous thromboembolism

18

What is a venous thromboembolism?

Condition in which a blood clot forms most often in the deep veins of the legs, groin or arm

19

What is used pre-test to determine the probability of a pulmonary embolism?

Well score

Revised Geneva score

20

What does the well score include?

Includes symptoms and signs of venous thromboembolism, previous venous thromboembolism and risk factors

21

What does the revised Geneva score include?

Based on risk factors, symptoms and signs

22

What investigations can be done for pulmonary embolism?

Full blood count, biochemistry, blood gases

Chest X-ray

ECG

D-dimer

CT pulmonary angiogram

V/Q scan

Echocardiography

Consider CT abdomen and mammography

Consider thrombophilia testing

23

What is an angiogram?

Used to visualise the inside of the lumen or vessels of the body

24

What is used to visualise the inside of the lumen or vessels of the body?

Angiogram

25

What does the mortality at 30 days vary between?

0-25%

26

What is used to determine the mortality of patients with pulmonary embolism?

Pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) score

27

What is the pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) score based on?

Age

Sex

Comorbidity

Physiological parameters

28

What does the treatment of pulmonary embolism include?

Oxygen

Low molecular weight heparin (such as dalteparin)

Warfarin

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC)

Thrombolysis

Pulmonary embolectomy

29

What is an example of a low molecular weight heparin?

Dalteparin

30

What are examples of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC)?

Rivaroxaban

Apixaban