Is the disease burgen from TB globally falling or rising?
How are worldwide incidences of TB changing each year?
Falling by 2%
How have TB deaths changed since 2000?
What number of killer of communicable disease is TB?
How does deaths caused by TB compare to HIV and malaria?
TB kills more than HIV and malaria combined
Where are 2/3 of TB cases?
Across 8 countries
What 3 countries have the most TB deaths?
How many people are infected with TB worldwide?
How does incidence of TB change within countries?
Different regions can have higher incidences, such as London having 39% of all UK cases
Who are vulnerable groups in the UK?
People from high prevalence countries
HIV positive, immunocompromised
Elderly, neonates, diabetes
Homeless, alcohol, mental health problems, prison
What percentage of UK TB cases are from non-UK born people?
How many cases are from the homeless, alcohols, mental health problems and prisons?
1 in 10
What is TB caused by?
Where is mycobacterium found?
Soil and water
What species of mycobacterium are responsible for TB?
What species of mycobacterium cause disease other than TB?
What is mycobacterium that causes disease other than TB called?
How can the growth of mycobacterium be described?
Very slowly growing
What does non-motile bacteria means?
Lacks the ability to propel themselves through the environment
Is mycobacterium anaerobic or aerobic?
How would you describe the cell wall of mycobacterium?
Very thick fatty cell wall
What are the consequences of mycobacterium having a very thick, fatty cell wall?
Resistant to alcohol
Resistant to neutrophil and macrophage destruction
Acid and alcohol fast bacilli (AAFB)
What can be said about acid and alcohol fast bacilli (AAFB) and TB?
Not all AAFB cause TB
How is TB spread?
What is the process of TB spreading airborne?
Someone with TB in their lungs coughs
Attaches to aerosol droplets and remain suspended in the air for many hours
Someone else breathes them in
What is an exception to mycobacterium being spread airborne?
How is mycobacterium bovis spread?
Consumption of unpasteurized infected cow milk
What is the immunopathology of TB?
1) Activated macrophages
2) Epitheloid cells
3) Langhan's giant cells
4) Accumulation of the above 3 leads to a granumla
What leads to a granuloma with TB?
Langhan's giant cells
What is the immune response of TB mediated by?