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Flashcards in Tuberculosis Deck (90)
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1

Is the disease burgen from TB globally falling or rising?

Falling

2

How are worldwide incidences of TB changing each year?

Falling by 2%

3

How have TB deaths changed since 2000?

Fallen 29%

4

What number of killer of communicable disease is TB?

Number 1

5

How does deaths caused by TB compare to HIV and malaria?

TB kills more than HIV and malaria combined

6

Where are 2/3 of TB cases?

Across 8 countries

 

India

China

Indonesia

Philippines

Pakistan

Nigeria

Bangladesh

South Africa

7

What 3 countries have the most TB deaths?

1) India

2) China

3) Indonesia

8

How many people are infected with TB worldwide?

2 billion

9

How does incidence of TB change within countries?

Different regions can have higher incidences, such as London having 39% of all UK cases

10

Who are vulnerable groups in the UK?

People from high prevalence countries

HIV positive, immunocompromised

Elderly, neonates, diabetes

Homeless, alcohol, mental health problems, prison

11

What percentage of UK TB cases are from non-UK born people?

70%

12

How many cases are from the homeless, alcohols, mental health problems and prisons?

1 in 10

13

What is TB caused by?

Mycobacterium

14

Where is mycobacterium found?

Soil and water

15

What species of mycobacterium are responsible for TB?

Tuberculosis

Africanum

Bovis

16

What species of mycobacterium cause disease other than TB?

Leprae (leprosy)

17

What is mycobacterium that causes disease other than TB called?

Atypical

18

How can the growth of mycobacterium be described?

Non-motile bacteria

Very slowly growing

19

What does non-motile bacteria means?

Lacks the ability to propel themselves through the environment

20

Is mycobacterium anaerobic or aerobic?

Aerobic

21

How would you describe the cell wall of mycobacterium?

Very thick fatty cell wall

22

What are the consequences of mycobacterium having a very thick, fatty cell wall?

Resistant to alcohol

Resistant to neutrophil and macrophage destruction

Acid and alcohol fast bacilli (AAFB)

23

What can be said about acid and alcohol fast bacilli (AAFB) and TB?

Not all AAFB cause TB

24

How is TB spread?

Airborne

25

What is the process of TB spreading airborne?

Someone with TB in their lungs coughs

Attaches to aerosol droplets and remain suspended in the air for many  hours

Someone else breathes them in

26

What is an exception to mycobacterium being spread airborne?

Mycobacterium bovis

27

How is mycobacterium bovis spread?

Consumption of unpasteurized infected cow milk

28

What is the immunopathology of TB?

1) Activated macrophages

2) Epitheloid cells

3) Langhan's giant cells 

4) Accumulation of the above 3 leads to a granumla

29

What leads to a granuloma with TB?

Activated macrophages

Epitheloid cells

Langhan's giant cells

30

What is the immune response of TB mediated by?

TH1