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Flashcards in Pathology of Obstructive Lung Disease Deck (95)
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1

What is localised obstruction?

Obstruction of a large airway

2

What can localised obstruction be caused by?

Lung cancer

Inhaled foreign bodies

Chronic scarring diseases like bronchiectasis and secondary tuberculosis

3

What are examples of chronic scarring diseases?

Bronchiectasis

Secondary tuberculosis

4

What is generalised small airway obstruction?

Bronchiolar obstruction

5

What are some obstructive airway diseases?

Chronic bronchitis

Emphysema

Asthma

6

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

A combination of chronic bronchitis and COPD

7

What is FEV1?

Forced expiratory volume of air exiting the lung in the first second of blowing out of your lungs as fast as possible

8

What is FVC?

Final total amount expirred

9

What is FEV1 usually?

70-80% of FVC

10

What volume is normal FVC1?

3.5-4L

11

What is normal FVC?

About 5L

12

What is used to measure FEV1 and FVC?

Spirometry

13

What is predicted FVC based on?

Age

Sex

Height

14

What can obstructive lung disease be demonstrated by?

Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)

15

16

What is the normal peak expiratory flow rate?

400-600L/min

17

What is the normal range, moderate fail and marked fail of PEFR?

80-100% of best value is normal

50-80% is moderate fail

<50% is marked fail

18

How does obstructive lung disease affect spirometry and peak expiratory flow rate?

Always airflow limitations

Peak expiratory flow rate is reduced

FEV1 is reduced

FVC may be reduced

FEV1 is less than 70% of FVC

19

What is bronchial asthma?

Type 1 hypersensitivity in the airways

20

What is bronchial asthma mediated by?

Immunologically mediated, leading to the degranulation of mast cells

21

What are the effects of degranulation of mast cells?

Patterns on inflammation in the airways and bronchial smooth muscle contraction

22

How does mast cell degranulation affect the airways?

Reduce cross sectional area, making breathing difficult

23

What is important about bronchial asthma?

Reversible airway obstruction either spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention

24

What can bronchial smooth muscle contraction and inflammation be modified by?

Drugs

25

What is the aetiology of chronic bronchitis and emphysema?

Smoking

Atmospheric pollution

Occupational dust

Alpha-1-antytrypsin deficiency

Effects of age and susceptability

26

Do more men or woman have COPD and why?

Men because they smoke more

27

What is chronic bronchitis?

Cough production of sputum most days in at least 3 consecutive months for 2 or more consecutive years (excludes TB, bronchiectasis)

28

What is chronic bronchitis easily confused with?

Chronic bronchial asthma

29

What is morphological?

Size, shape and structure of a given organ

30

What are morphological changes in the large airways due to chronic bronchitis?

Mucous gland hyperplasia

Goblet cell hyperplasia

Inflammation and fibrosis is a minor component