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1

What does COPD stand up for?

Chronic obstructory pulmonary disease

2

What is COPD characterised by?

Chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible

3

What is included in the diagnosis of COPD?

Chronic bronchitis and emphysema

4

What is COPD usually caused by?

Significant exposure to noxious particles or gases

5

What is the aetiology of COPD?

Smoking

Pollutants

Host factors

6

What is the patho-biology of COPD?

Impaired lung growth

Accelerated decline

Lung injury

Lung and systemic inflammation

7

What is pathobiology?

Branch of biology that deals with pathology with a greater emphasis on the biological than the medical aspects

8

What is the pathology of COPD?

Small airway disorders of abnormalities

Emphysema

Systemic effects

9

What are the clinical manifestations of COPD?

Symptoms

Exacerbations

Comorbidities

10

What are comorbidities?

Presence of one or more additional diseases co-occuring with a primary disease

11

What is the presence of one or more additional disease co-occurring with a primary disease called?

Comorbidities

12

What is pathology?

Medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids

13

What is the primary cause of COPD?

Tobacco smoke

14

What predisposes COPD?

Increasing age and female sex

15

What does predisposes mean?

Makes someone liable to a specific condition

16

What can factors that affect lung growth during gestation and childhood affect?

Future risk of COPD

17

What deficiency is linked to early onset COPD?

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

18

What is the prevalence of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency?

Rare inherited disease

19

What is an early onset of COPD considered as?

Younger than 45 years old

20

What is alpha-1-antitrypsin?

Proteast inhibitor made in the liver which limits damage caused by activating neutrophils releasing elastase in response to infection/cigarette smoke

21

What does absent or low alpha-1-antitrypsin lead to?

Alveolar damage and emphysema

22

What are some common alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes?

PiMM (100% normal)

PiMS (80% normal serum levels)

PiSS (60% normal serum levels)

PiMZ (40% normal serum levels)

PiZZ (10-15% normal serum levels)

23

What serum levels is PiMM?

100%

24

What serum levels is PiMS?

80%

25

What serum levels is PiSS?

60%

26

What serum levels is PiMZ?

40%

27

What serum levels is PiZZ?

10-15%

28

What does A1AT stand for?

alpha-1-antitrypsin

29

What does alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) lead to?

Liver fibrosis

Cirrhosis

30

What is cirrhosis?

Condition where the liver does not function properly due to long term damage