What are some clinical findings of pleural disease?
Reduced breath sounds
Stony dull on percusion
What are some possible chest X-ray findings for pleural disease?
Loss of costophrenic ange
At least 200ml of pleural fluid
What are some possible CT findings of pleural disease?
Density of fluid
When investigating pleural fluid, in terms of biochemistry, what are you looking for?
When investigating pleural fluid, in terms of microbiology, are you looking for?
What are the 2 kinds of extracellular fluid?
What is tranudate?
Extracellular fluid with a low protein count, occurs due to increase hydrostatic pressure
What does transudate occur due to?
Increase hydrostatic pressure
What is exudate?
Extracellular fluid with a high protein count, occurs due to inflammation and increase capillary permeability
What does exudate occur due to?
Inflammation and increased capillary permeability
Which of tranudate and exudate has more protein?
Which of transduate and exudate has more LDH?
What is LDH?
What is exudate associated with?
What is transudate associated with?
What are different kinds of biopsy that can be used to obtain a sample of pleural fluid?
Abrams pleural bipsy
Image guided biopsy
VATS pleural biopsy
What does VATS stand up for?
Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery
What is a pleural effusion?
Build up of fluid between the layers of the pleura
What is a build up of fluid between the two layers of the pleura called?
When should a pleural effusion be drained?
Raised respiratory rate
Chest X-ray trachea deviated
What is a parapneumonic effusion?
Type of effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess or bronchiectasis
What is the prognosis of parapneumonic effusion?
What percentage of pleural effusions are parapneumonic effusions?
What is a type of effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess or bronchiectasis called?
Where should the needle go (in regards to the rib) when obtaining a sample of pleural fluid?
Above the rib to avoid the nerve bundle
What is a pneumothorax?
Collapsed lung, occurs when air leaks into the pleura
What is a collapsed lung, occuring due to air leaking into the pleura called?
What are the 2 ways that a pneumothorax can occur?
What are different kinds of traumatic pneumothorax?
What does iatrogenic mean?
Illness caused by medical examination or treatment