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Flashcards in Pleural Disease Deck (75)
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1

What are some clinical findings of pleural disease?

Reduced breath sounds

Stony dull on percusion

2

What are some possible chest X-ray findings for pleural disease?

Loss of costophrenic ange

At least 200ml of pleural fluid

Tracheal deviation

3

What are some possible CT findings of pleural disease?

Nodular thickening

Pleural fluid/air

Density of fluid

Localisation

4

When investigating pleural fluid, in terms of biochemistry, what are you looking for?

Protein

LDH

Glucose

Triglyceride

Cholesterol

Amylase

Rheumatoid factor

5

When investigating pleural fluid, in terms of microbiology, are you looking for?

Gram stain

AAFB

Culture

6

What are the 2 kinds of extracellular fluid?

Transudate

Exudate

7

What is tranudate?

Extracellular fluid with a low protein count, occurs due to increase hydrostatic pressure

8

What does transudate occur due to?

Increase hydrostatic pressure

9

What is exudate?

Extracellular fluid with a high protein count, occurs due to inflammation and increase capillary permeability

10

What does exudate occur due to?

Inflammation and increased capillary permeability

11

Which of tranudate and exudate has more protein?

Exudate

12

Which of transduate and exudate has more LDH?

Exudate

13

What is LDH?

Lactate dehydrogenase

14

What is exudate associated with?

Infection

Malignancy

Pulmonary embolism

Rheumatoid arthritis

Effusions

15

What is transudate associated with?

Cardiac failure

Liver failure

Renal failure

Hypoalbuminemia

Hypothyroidism

Pulmonary embolism

Malignancy

16

What are different kinds of biopsy that can be used to obtain a sample of pleural fluid?

Abrams pleural bipsy

Image guided biopsy

Medical thoracoscopy

VATS pleural biopsy

17

What does VATS stand up for?

Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery

18

What is a pleural effusion?

Build up of fluid between the layers of the pleura

19

What is a build up of fluid between the two layers of the pleura called?

Pleural effusion

20

When should a pleural effusion be drained?

Large

Breathless

Raised respiratory rate

Hypoxia

Tachycardia

Chest X-ray trachea deviated

Pus

Trauma

Parapneumonic

21

What is a parapneumonic effusion?

Type of effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess or bronchiectasis

22

What is the prognosis of parapneumonic effusion?

Poor outcome

23

What percentage of pleural effusions are parapneumonic effusions?

33%

24

What is a type of effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess or bronchiectasis called?

Parapneumonic effusion

25

Where should the needle go (in regards to the rib) when obtaining a sample of pleural fluid?

Above the rib to avoid the nerve bundle

26

What is a pneumothorax?

Collapsed lung, occurs when air leaks into the pleura

27

What is a collapsed lung, occuring due to air leaking into the pleura called?

Pneumothorax

28

What are the 2 ways that a pneumothorax can occur?

Spontaneous

Traumatic

29

What are different kinds of traumatic pneumothorax?

Non-iatrogenic

Iatrogenic

30

What does iatrogenic mean?

Illness caused by medical examination or treatment