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Flashcards in DM Nutrition Deck (64)
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1

What are the elements of metabolic syndrome?

1. High TGs
2. HTN
3. Central obesity
4. Low HDL
5. Hyperglycemia

2

What is the range of fasting plasma glucose to diagnose DM?

>126 mg/dl

3

What is the range of random plasma glucose to diagnose DM?

>200 mg/dl + symptoms

4

What is the HbA1c level to diagnose DM?

>6.5%

5

What are the cells that are attacked in DM I?

Beta cells in the pancreas

6

Why is the C peptide level important when assessing hypoglycemia?

Exogenous insulin does not have C peptide (think munchausen's syndrome)

7

What happens with amino acids uptake and synthesis with insulin?

Increase

8

What happens with FA synthesis with insulin action?

Increases

9

What happens with glycogen synthesis with insulin action?

Increases

10

What happens to glycolysis with insulin action?

Increases

11

What happen to gluconeogenesis with insulin action?

Decreases

12

What happen to lipolysis with insulin action?

Decreases

13

What happen to proteolysis with insulin action?

Decreases

14

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: increased blood glucose

Increase

15

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: leptin secretion

Decreases

16

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: increased amino acids

Increases

17

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: Increased FAs

Increases

18

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: incretin hormone

Increases

19

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: sympathetic nervous system stimulation

Decreases

20

Increase or decrease insulin secretion: Acetylcholine

Increases

21

Increase or decrease glucagon secretion: sympathetic nervous system stimulation

Increased

22

Increase or decrease glucagon secretion: increased circulating AAs

Increased

23

Increase or decrease glucagon secretion: increased circulation of FAs

decreased

24

Can the brain use ketones?

Yes, but only at the very end

25

Epinephrine acts on which pancreatic cells?

alpha and beta cells

26

What is the role of Epinephrine on blood glucose/FA levels?

Increases energy available to the blood

27

What is the role of cortisol on protein/fat metabolism?

Maintains glucose/fat metabolism

28

True or false: DM II pts do not have an insulin deficiency, only insulin resistance

False- there is some insulin deficiency

29

What is the scale that the glycemic index uses?

0-100

30

What is the standard reference for the glycemic index?

Glucose or white bread