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Flashcards in Energy and Balance Deck (31)
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1

True or false: all cancers begin as a single cell that is proliferating erratically

True

2

What percent of cancers are genetically inherited?

5-10%

3

The majority of cancers involve what?

Alterations or damage accumulated over time

4

What are the six necessities for a cancer to grow?

Evasion of apoptosis
Unlimited replication
Sustained angiogenesis
Invasion and metastasis
Growth signal autonomy

5

True or false: epigenetics changes that are carcinogenic may be passed on to offspring

True

6

How does nutrition affect CA?

Compromising structure and function of cells through nutrient availability

7

True or false: obesity is now a greater killer than undernutrition

True

8

What percent of adult americans are obese?

35%

9

What is metabolic syndrome?

Abdominal obesity
HTN
DM
Dyslipidemia
Fatty liver

10

How does metabolic syndrome influence CA?

Metabolic disturbances

11

Nutrient excess can lead to what?

Production of reactive oxidative species

12

True or false: nutrient excess can impair ER function

True

13

Nutrient excess leads to increased accumulation of what

long chain fatty acyl coenzyme A molecules

14

True or false: insulin can be limited by inflammation

True

15

Insulin derived growth factor is responsible for what?

Deposition of fat into adipose tissue

16

True or false: Insulin is associated with poor prognosis of CA

true

17

What is the MOA of insulin derived growth factor on CA?

Inhibits apoptosis and initiates cell cycle

18

What is the role of VEGF in CA/obesity? What role does insulin play in VEGF production?

Adipocytes release it

Insulin increases production

19

What is the role of estrogens in obesity caused CA?

Adipose tissue releases estrogen, which stimulates cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis

20

Aromatase is used for what?

Converts adrenal androgens to estrogen

21

What is the type of fat that is so bad for inflammation?

Visceral fat--surrounded by macrophages

22

What does excess adipose tissue produce that predisposes people to CA?

ROS, inflammatory cytokines

23

What are flavonoids?

Plant antioxidants

24

Why are wild caught fish preferable to tank grown?

Wild have omega 3. Tank grown are fed corn, which has omega 6

25

What is the one CA that is not associated with obesity?

Lung CA

26

What is the largest medical disaster of the past 100 years?

Low fat/high carb diet

27

What is the chemical composition of sucrose?

Glucose:fructose

28

What is the single most effective intervention for preventing cancer in animal models?

Restrict energy intake

29

What did the CALERIE trial demonstrate?

metabolic/endocrine changes observed in rodents and monkeys are also occurring in humans

30

How does excess fat consumption lead to CA?

Increased ROS and increased estrogen/VEGF