Flashcards in Energy and Balance Deck (31)
True or false: all cancers begin as a single cell that is proliferating erratically
What percent of cancers are genetically inherited?
The majority of cancers involve what?
Alterations or damage accumulated over time
What are the six necessities for a cancer to grow?
Evasion of apoptosis
Invasion and metastasis
Growth signal autonomy
True or false: epigenetics changes that are carcinogenic may be passed on to offspring
How does nutrition affect CA?
Compromising structure and function of cells through nutrient availability
True or false: obesity is now a greater killer than undernutrition
What percent of adult americans are obese?
What is metabolic syndrome?
How does metabolic syndrome influence CA?
Nutrient excess can lead to what?
Production of reactive oxidative species
True or false: nutrient excess can impair ER function
Nutrient excess leads to increased accumulation of what
long chain fatty acyl coenzyme A molecules
True or false: insulin can be limited by inflammation
Insulin derived growth factor is responsible for what?
Deposition of fat into adipose tissue
True or false: Insulin is associated with poor prognosis of CA
What is the MOA of insulin derived growth factor on CA?
Inhibits apoptosis and initiates cell cycle
What is the role of VEGF in CA/obesity? What role does insulin play in VEGF production?
Adipocytes release it
Insulin increases production
What is the role of estrogens in obesity caused CA?
Adipose tissue releases estrogen, which stimulates cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis
Aromatase is used for what?
Converts adrenal androgens to estrogen
What is the type of fat that is so bad for inflammation?
Visceral fat--surrounded by macrophages
What does excess adipose tissue produce that predisposes people to CA?
ROS, inflammatory cytokines
What are flavonoids?
Why are wild caught fish preferable to tank grown?
Wild have omega 3. Tank grown are fed corn, which has omega 6
What is the one CA that is not associated with obesity?
What is the largest medical disaster of the past 100 years?
Low fat/high carb diet
What is the chemical composition of sucrose?
What is the single most effective intervention for preventing cancer in animal models?
Restrict energy intake
What did the CALERIE trial demonstrate?
metabolic/endocrine changes observed in rodents and monkeys are also occurring in humans