Flashcards in Intro and Carbs Deck (61)
What are the four stages of epidemiological transition?
1. Infectious disease
2. Receding pandemics
3. Degenerative disease
4. Delayed degeneration
5. Inactivity obesity/DM
What is a cohort study?
Observe a group of individuals
What is a case-control studies?
Compare two groups, one control, the other experimental
What is an interventional study?
Assign to either control or intervention group, and see results
What is the selection bias?
Recruiting for respondents only gets a certain group
What is recall bias?
People not remembering
What is interviewer/observer bias?
Subjects or administeres know what they're getting
What percent of carbs make up western diets? Primitive?
Western = 55%
Primitive = 45%
Is a low fat diet helpful, according to the women's health initiative?
What is the primordial level of prevention?
Prevent the penetration of risk factors into the population
What is primary level of protection?
Limit the incidence of disease by controlling causes/risk factors
What is the secondary level of protection?
Interrupt the disease before it becomes symptomatic
What is the tertiary level of prevention?
Limit the physical/social consequences of disease
What are the four basic fuels?
Sucrose is a combination of which monosaccharides? Lactose? Maltose?
Sucrose = Glucose + fructose
Lactose = Gal +Glc
Maltose = glc+glc
1 gram of carbs is how many calories?
What are complex carbs? Simple?
simple = mono or disaccharides
What is the enzyme that degrades carbs in the mouth?
What is the enzyme that is in the pancreas that breaks down carbs?
Pancreatic alpha amylase
What is the rxn catalyzed by maltase?
Maltose to glucose
What is the rxn catalyzed by sucrose?
Sucrose to fructose
What is the rxn catalyzed by lactose?
Lactose to galactose
What is the transporter used for fructose?
What is the transported used for glucose?
What is the transporter to move glucose into the blood?
What does it mean for a food to have a high glycemic index?
High and quick peak [glucose]
True or false; Not all CHOS lead to the same rise in blood pressure
What is the glycemic index reference molecule?
Typically, the more processed a food is the (higher/lower) the glycemic index is.