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Flashcards in Intro and Carbs Deck (61)
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1

What are the four stages of epidemiological transition?

1. Infectious disease
2. Receding pandemics
3. Degenerative disease
4. Delayed degeneration
5. Inactivity obesity/DM

2

What is a cohort study?

Observe a group of individuals

3

What is a case-control studies?

Compare two groups, one control, the other experimental

4

What is an interventional study?

Assign to either control or intervention group, and see results

5

What is the selection bias?

Recruiting for respondents only gets a certain group

6

What is recall bias?

People not remembering

7

What is interviewer/observer bias?

Subjects or administeres know what they're getting

8

What percent of carbs make up western diets? Primitive?

Western = 55%
Primitive = 45%

9

Is a low fat diet helpful, according to the women's health initiative?

Not really

10

What is the primordial level of prevention?

Prevent the penetration of risk factors into the population

11

What is primary level of protection?

Limit the incidence of disease by controlling causes/risk factors

12

What is the secondary level of protection?

Interrupt the disease before it becomes symptomatic

13

What is the tertiary level of prevention?

Limit the physical/social consequences of disease

14

What are the four basic fuels?

Carbs
Fats
Proteins
EtOH

15

Sucrose is a combination of which monosaccharides? Lactose? Maltose?

Sucrose = Glucose + fructose

Lactose = Gal +Glc

Maltose = glc+glc

16

1 gram of carbs is how many calories?

4

17

What are complex carbs? Simple?

Polysaccharides

simple = mono or disaccharides

18

What is the enzyme that degrades carbs in the mouth?

alpha-amylase

19

What is the enzyme that is in the pancreas that breaks down carbs?

Pancreatic alpha amylase

20

What is the rxn catalyzed by maltase?

Maltose to glucose

21

What is the rxn catalyzed by sucrose?

Sucrose to fructose

22

What is the rxn catalyzed by lactose?

Lactose to galactose

23

What is the transporter used for fructose?

GLUT5

24

What is the transported used for glucose?

SGLT1

25

What is the transporter to move glucose into the blood?

GLUT2

26

What does it mean for a food to have a high glycemic index?

High and quick peak [glucose]

27

True or false; Not all CHOS lead to the same rise in blood pressure

True

28

What is the glycemic index reference molecule?

Glucose

29

Typically, the more processed a food is the (higher/lower) the glycemic index is.

Higher

30

Low intensity exercise utilizes primarily what energy stores?

Fatty acids