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Flashcards in Proteins Deck (67)
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1

What happens if the body lacks essential amino acids?

Body breaks down

2

What does it mean for a protein to be conditionally essential?

Demand exceeds what can be produced

3

True or false: functionally, all amino acids are essential

True

4

What are the 9 essential amino acids?

PVT TIM HALL

5

Gastrointestinal peptides are considered what?

Hormones or chemical neurotransmitters

6

What are the two types of bonds that peptides can undergo?

Peptide bonds or disulfide

7

What are the 5 stages of peptide synthesis?

1. Amino acid activation
2. Initiation of polypeptide
3. Elongation
4. termination
5. folding/processes

8

What is the cause of cystinuria? Which AAs are involved?

Defect in cystine transporter for COAL (cystine, ornithin, R, Y)

9

What is Hartnup disease?

Deficiency of transporter for W
causing MR and a rash

10

True or false: protein turnover only occurs with muscle breakdown

False-always happening to maintain AA pool

11

Which are degraded faster: hormones or structural proteins?

Hormonal proteins

12

True or false: under normal conditions, Nitrogen = nitrogen out

True

13

When do proteins begin to be digested?

Stomach acid and proteases denatures

14

The majority of proteins are broken down where?

Small intestine

15

What activates pepsinogen to pepsin?

HCl

16

Where does pepsin work?

Stomach

17

What activates trypsinogen?

Endopeptidases in the intestines

18

What activates chymotrypsin?

Trypsin in the intestines

19

What activated procarboxypeptidase?

Trypsin

20

What is the enzyme in infants that works ion proteins in the mouth?

Rennin

21

What are the 8 common food allergies?

Milk
Egg
Shellfish
Fish
Tree nuts
Peanuts
Soybeans

22

What is the hypothesis for food allergies?

Intact proteins may be absorbed through leaky cell junctions in the small intestines

23

True or false: some AA are used in gluconeogenesis

True

24

What are the two AA that act as Nitrogen transporters?

Alanine and glutamine

25

What is the only AA that is completely oxidized in the muscle?

Leucine

26

Which AA rises in the blood during fasting?

Leucine

27

Leucine is used in the TCA how?

Converted to acetyl coA

28

The kidneys preferentially produces which AAs? (3)

R
H
S

29

The kidneys convert which two amino acids?

F to Y
G to S

30

True or false: essential AA are actively transported in neurons preferentially

True