What system does the staging of lung cancer use?
TNM international system for staging lung cancer
What does the TNM international staging of lung cancer consider?
Size and position of tumour (T)
Whether cancer cells have spread into the lymph nodes (N)
Whether the tumour has spread anywhere else in the body, metastasis (M)
What is T?
Size and position of tumour
What is N?
Whether tumour has spread to lymph nodes
What is M?
Whether the tumour has spread into other parts of the body, metastasis
What investigations can be done to determine T?
What investigations can be done to determine N?
EBUS/EUS (endobronchial ultrasound)
What does EBUS stand up for?
What investigations can be done to determine M?
What is the most common tracer used?
What does FDG stand for?
What is often used for the staging of lung cancer?
What can be said about the availability and cost of FDG PET?
Limited availability in the UK
What is the labelled glucose analogue used in FDG-PET?
What is the half body time of 18F-FDG?
What does TX mean?
Primary tumour cannot be assessed
What does T0 mean?
No evidence of primary tumour
What does Tis mean?
Carcinoma in situ (has not spread to surrounding tissue, group of abnormal cells in the place where they formed)
What is carcinoma in situ?
Group of abnormal cells which are still where they were formed, have not spread to nearby tissue
What is T1?
Less than or equal to 3cm in diameter
Surrounded by lung or visceral pleura
Without bronchoscopic evidence of involvement of the main bronchus
What is T1a?
Less than or equal to 1cm
What is T1b?
Less than or equal to 2cm
What is T1c?
Less than or equal to 3cm
What are the sub classes of T1?
What is T2?
More than 3cm but less than 5cm
What are the different classes of T2?
What is T2a?
More than 3cm but less than 4cm
What is T2b?
More than 4cm but less than 5cm
When are tumours classified as T2a although they are less than 3cm?
Invades main bronchus
Invades visceral pleura
Associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis that extends to the hilar region involving part or all of the lung
What is T3?
More than 5cm but less than 7cm