Radiology of Lung Cancer and Staging Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Radiology of Lung Cancer and Staging Deck (83)
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31

What system does the staging of lung cancer use?

TNM international system for staging lung cancer

32

What does the TNM international staging of lung cancer consider?

Size and position of tumour (T)

Whether cancer cells have spread into the lymph nodes (N)

Whether the tumour has spread anywhere else in the body, metastasis (M)

33

What is T?

Size and position of tumour

34

What is N?

Whether tumour has spread to lymph nodes

35

What is M?

Whether the tumour has spread into other parts of the body, metastasis

36

What investigations can be done to determine T?

CT

PET-CT

Bronchoscopy

37

What investigations can be done to determine N?

PET-CT

Mediastinoscopy

CT

EBUS/EUS (endobronchial ultrasound)

38

What does EBUS stand up for?

Endobronchial ultrasound

39

What investigations can be done to determine M?

PET-CT

CT

Bone scan

40

What is the most common tracer used?

FDG (flourodeoxyglucose)

41

What does FDG stand for?

Flourodeoxyglucose

42

What is often used for the staging of lung cancer?

Flourodeoxyglucose PET

43

What can be said about the availability and cost of FDG PET?

Expensive

Limited availability in the UK

44

What is the labelled glucose analogue used in FDG-PET?

18F-FDG

45

What is the half body time of 18F-FDG?

60 minutes

46

What does TX mean?

Primary tumour cannot be assessed

47

What does T0 mean?

No evidence of primary tumour

48

What does Tis mean?

Carcinoma in situ (has not spread to surrounding tissue, group of abnormal cells in the place where they formed)

49

What is carcinoma in situ?

Group of abnormal cells which are still where they were formed, have not spread to nearby tissue

50

What is T1?

Less than or equal to 3cm in diameter

Surrounded by lung or visceral pleura

Without bronchoscopic evidence of involvement of the main bronchus

51

What is T1a?

Less than or equal to 1cm

52

What is T1b?

Less than or equal to 2cm

53

What is T1c?

Less than or equal to 3cm

54

What are the sub classes of T1?

T1a

T1b

T1c

55

What is T2?

More than 3cm but less than 5cm

56

What are the different classes of T2?

T2a

T2b

57

What is T2a?

More than 3cm but less than 4cm

58

What is T2b?

More than 4cm but less than 5cm

59

When are tumours classified as T2a although they are less than 3cm?

Invades main bronchus

Invades visceral pleura

Associated with atelectasis or obstructive pneumonitis that extends to the hilar region involving part or all of the lung

60

What is T3?

More than 5cm but less than 7cm