Flashcards in ASBHDS - Session 3 Deck (21):
What are health related behaviours?
Anything that may promote good health or lead to illness, eg smoking, exercising, eating a healthy diet
Explain the theory of classical conditioning
This is the idea that behaviours can become linked to unrelated stimuli. This was demonstrated by the Pavlov's dog experiment, where the dogs salivated when they were fed. They also salivated when they were fed alongside a bell being rung, then learned to salivate just because of the bell.
How does classical conditioning apply to humans?
Many physical responses can become classically conditioned, eg anticipatory nausea in chemotherapy or fear of hospitals. Aversive techniques can be used in substance misuse to pair the behaviour with an unpleasant response
Explain the theory of operant conditioning
This suggests that people act on the environment, then their behaviour is shaped by the consequences of this (reward or punishment)
How does operant conditioning relate to humans in healthcare?
- unhealthy behaviours are immediately rewarding, and we are driven by short term rewards
- behaviour can be shaped through reinforcement (punishment or reward)
Give some limitations of conditioning theories
- classical and operant conditioning are based on simple stimulus-response associations
- no account of cognitive processes, knowledge, beliefs, memory, attitudes, expectations etc
- no account of social context
Explain social learning theory
Behaviour is goal-directed, and people are motivated to perform certain behaviours that are valued or they believe they can enact (self-efficacy). We learn which behaviours are rewarded from observing others - this is more effective if the model is high status or 'like us'
How does social learning theory apply to healthcare?
- Influence of family, peers, media figures etc can be very strong and may influence to carry out harmful behaviours
- celebrities can be used in health promotion campaigns
What is cognitive dissonance theory?
The idea that people have discomfort when they hold inconsistent beliefs or actions/events do not match their beliefs. Discomfort can be reduced by changing beliefs/behaviour
What is the health belief model?
A social cognition model where beliefs about the health threat (perceived susceptibility/severity) and beliefs about health-related behaviours (perceived benefits/barriers), along with a cue to action, explain a person's engagement with health promoting behaviour
What is the theory of planned behaviour?
The idea that three things form intention which leads to a certain behaviour:
- attitude towards behaviour
- subjective norm
- perceived control
What is the 'stages of change' (transtheoretical) model?
- the way that people think about health behaviours and willingness to change their behaviours are not static
- there are 5 (or 6?) stages which people may pass through in time
- precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, relapse
What is substance misuse?
The harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs
What are stimulants?
A class of substances which make people feel more alert and like they have more energy and confidence. Eg. Tobacco, cocaine, amphetamine and mephedrone
What are hallucinogens?
Substances described as 'mind-altering' because they change/impact perception, mood and senses. Eg. LSD and magic mushrooms
What are depressants?
Substances which make people feel more relaxed, eg alcohol, heroin, tranquillisers and cannabis
What is the 'medical model' of addiction?
The idea that addiction is an abnormal condition which causes discomfort, dysfunction and distress to the individual afflicted. Treatment focuses on the physical condition, and is usually pharmaceutical
What is the disease model of addiction?
The idea that addiction is an illness, and loss of control is the primary symptom. It is genetic and therefore predetermined, so abstinence is the only viable treatment. This combines in-patient treatment with therapy and groups
What is the behavioural model of addiction?
This suggests that addiction doesn't exist, it's merely a 'mis-learnt coping mechanism', which is a result of social, economic and familial learned experiences. Alternative coping mechanisms can be taught
What is cognitive behavioural therapy?
Stems from a belief that alcohol and drugs are used by individuals to cope with anxiety and low self esteem amongst other things. Uses techniques to address these feelings which can then reduce substance abuse, eg anger management, relaxation training, drink/drug diaries