Infection - Healthcare Infection Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Infection - Healthcare Infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection - Healthcare Infection Deck (13):
1

What are healthcare infections?

Infections arising as a consequence of providing healthcare. In hospital patients, it must have been neither present nor incubating at time of admission (at least 48 hours after admission).

2

Give some reasons why healthcare infections are important

- frequent (8% of in-patients)
- impact on health (prolonged length of stay in hospital)
- impact on healthcare organisations (very expensive)
- preventable

3

Give some examples of viruses often caught as a healthcare infection

- blood-borne viruses (hep B, C, HIV)
- norovirus
- influenza
- chickenpox

4

Give some examples of bacteria that can often cause a healthcare infection

- staph aureus
- C difficile
- E coli
- pseudomonas aeruginosa
- mycobacterium tuberculosis

5

Give some examples of fungal healthcare infections

- candida albicans
- aspergillus species

6

Give some examples of parasitic healthcare infections

Malaria (very rare though)

7

Give some patient factors that can make it easier for them to acquire an infection

- very old/young
- obesity/malnourished
- diabetes
- cancer
- immunosuppressed
- smoker
- surgical patient
- emergency admission

8

What are the 'four P's' of infection control?

- patient (their varying factors and interactions)
- pathogen (virulence factors, ecological interactions etc.)
- practice (organisation and leadership, activities of healthcare workers)
- place (environment of patient)

9

Give some examples of general patient interventions to help prevent infection

- optimise patients condition (smoking, nutrition, diabetes)
- antimicrobial prophylaxis
- skin preparation
- hand hygiene

10

Give some examples of specific patient interventions to help prevent infection

- MRSA screens
- mupirocin nasal ointment
- disinfectant body wash

11

How can patient to patient transmission be prevented using physical barriers?

- isolation of infected patients
- protection of susceptible patients

12

Give some examples of healthcare worker interventions to prevent spread of infection

- healthcare workers must be disease free and vaccinated
- good clinical techniques must be used
- hand hygiene
- PPE
- antimicrobial prescribing

13

Give some examples of environmental interventions to prevent infection

- built environment (ensure has good layout, toilets and wash hand basins)
- cleaning (disinfectants, steam cleaning, hydrogen peroxide vapour)
- medical interventions (single use equipment, sterilisation, decontamination)
- kitchen and food facilities
- positive/negative pressure rooms for immunosuppressed patients

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