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CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Infection - Healthcare Infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection - Healthcare Infection Deck (13)
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What are healthcare infections?

Infections arising as a consequence of providing healthcare. In hospital patients, it must have been neither present nor incubating at time of admission (at least 48 hours after admission).


Give some reasons why healthcare infections are important

- frequent (8% of in-patients)
- impact on health (prolonged length of stay in hospital)
- impact on healthcare organisations (very expensive)
- preventable


Give some examples of viruses often caught as a healthcare infection

- blood-borne viruses (hep B, C, HIV)
- norovirus
- influenza
- chickenpox


Give some examples of bacteria that can often cause a healthcare infection

- staph aureus
- C difficile
- E coli
- pseudomonas aeruginosa
- mycobacterium tuberculosis


Give some examples of fungal healthcare infections

- candida albicans
- aspergillus species


Give some examples of parasitic healthcare infections

Malaria (very rare though)


Give some patient factors that can make it easier for them to acquire an infection

- very old/young
- obesity/malnourished
- diabetes
- cancer
- immunosuppressed
- smoker
- surgical patient
- emergency admission


What are the 'four P's' of infection control?

- patient (their varying factors and interactions)
- pathogen (virulence factors, ecological interactions etc.)
- practice (organisation and leadership, activities of healthcare workers)
- place (environment of patient)


Give some examples of general patient interventions to help prevent infection

- optimise patients condition (smoking, nutrition, diabetes)
- antimicrobial prophylaxis
- skin preparation
- hand hygiene


Give some examples of specific patient interventions to help prevent infection

- MRSA screens
- mupirocin nasal ointment
- disinfectant body wash


How can patient to patient transmission be prevented using physical barriers?

- isolation of infected patients
- protection of susceptible patients


Give some examples of healthcare worker interventions to prevent spread of infection

- healthcare workers must be disease free and vaccinated
- good clinical techniques must be used
- hand hygiene
- antimicrobial prescribing


Give some examples of environmental interventions to prevent infection

- built environment (ensure has good layout, toilets and wash hand basins)
- cleaning (disinfectants, steam cleaning, hydrogen peroxide vapour)
- medical interventions (single use equipment, sterilisation, decontamination)
- kitchen and food facilities
- positive/negative pressure rooms for immunosuppressed patients

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