Flashcards in MEH 4 - Energy Production (Carbohydrates) Deck (22):
What is pyruvate dehydrogenase used for?
Converts pyruvate and Coenzyme A into acetyl CoA. This uses NAD+ and produces NADH and H+. Reaction is irreversible and is sensitive to vitamin B1 deficiency as it requires B-vitamins
True or false - PDH is a simple structured enzyme?
False - it is a large multi-enzyme complex of five different enzymes
Which co-factors does PDH require?
FAD, thiamine pyrophosphate and lipoid acid
What substances activate PDH?
What substances inhibit PDH?
How many Krebs cycles occur per glucose molecule?
Outline the Krebs cycle (no names required, just carbon numbers)
- acetyl CoA (C2) + C4 = C6 (citrate)
- citrate converted to another C6 molecule, then isocitrate (also C6)
- NADH and CO2 given off
- isocitrate converted to C5, more NADH and CO2 given off, C5 converted to C4 (succinylcoA)
- CoA and GTP given off, C4 converted to succinate (C4)
- succinate converted to fumarate (C4) giving off FADH2
- fumarate converted to malate (C4), taking in H2O
- malate converted to oxaloacetate (C4), giving off NADH
How is the TCA (Krebs) cycle regulated?
- energy availability regulates it, so if not enough ATP or NADH is available then can't function
- isocitrate dehydrogenase
- alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Is the Krebs cycle oxidative or reductive?
It is oxidative, producing NADH and FADH2
What are the folds in mitochondria called?
How does the electron transport chain work?
NADH gives off 2H+, which are pumped into the intermembrane space by the proton translocating complex (PTC). FADH2 also does this. The electrons move from PTC to PTC, releasing energy, until they are eventually accepted by 2H+ and and oxygen to form H2O.
What is the H+ gradient produced by the electron transport known as?
Proton motive force
How does the proton motive force generate ATP?
- return of protons is favoured energetically by the electrochemical potential
- protons can only return across the membrane via the ATP synthase enzyme, which drives ATP synthesis
How is oxidative phosphorylation regulated?
High [ATP] means there is low [ADP], so there is no substrate for ATP synthase. The outward flow of H+ stops, and [H+] in intermembrane space increases, preventing further pumping of H+ and electron transport. Reverses when ATP conc. lowers.
How can oxidative phosphorylation be blocked?
Inhibitors block electron transport eg. Cyanide prevents acceptance of electrons by O2
What do 'uncouplers' do in oxidative phosphorylation?
They increase the permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane to protons. This dissipates the proton gradient, reducing the proton motive force. There is therefore no drive for ATP synthesis. Eg. Dinitrophenol
How can oxidative phosphorylation diseases affect the ATP synthesis process?
Genetic defects in proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA leads to decrease in electron transport
What happens to the energy not used in oxidative phosphorylation?
It is lost as heat
What is thermogenin (UCP1)?
A naturally occurring uncoupling protein
How does brown adipose tissue generate heat?
- in response to cold, noradrenaline activates lipase which releases fatty acids
- oxidation of fatty acids produces NADH and FADH2 for electron transport
- fatty acids activate UCP1, which transports H+ back to mitochondria
- this means electron transport can occur uncoupled from ATP synthesis, so heat is generated
Where is brown adipose tissue found?
- newborn infants to maintain heat around vital organs
- hibernating animals to generate heat to maintain body temp