Flashcards in MSK - Cervical And Thoracic Spine Deck (27)
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
How big are the cervical vertebrae compared to the other vertebrae?
They are the smallest of the discrete vertebrae
What is different about the foramen of cervical vertebrae (except C7)?
It is bifid (has two 'spikes')
What action is the first cervical vertebrae involved with?
50% of total flexion and extension of the neck
Which two features is the first cervical vertebra missing which the other vertebrae have?
Vertebral body and spinous processes
What are the two things found on the second cervical vertebrae which work together to prevent horizontal displacement of the atlas?
The 'dens' (Odontoid process) and the transverse ligament
What are the three main features that characterise the second cervical vertebra?
- odontoid process/'dens'
- rugged lateral mass
- large spinous process
What's special about the seventh cervical vertebra?
It has the longest spinous process (which is not bifid), which means it can be seen from the outside very prominently. It also has a small foramen transversarium so only the accessory vertebral veins are transmitted.
What is the ligamentum nuchae?
A thickening of the supraspinous ligament which attaches to the external occipital protuberance and the spinous processes of all cervical vertebrae.
What are the functions of the ligamentum nuchae?
- maintains secondary curvature of the cervical spine
- helps the cervical spine support the head
- major site of attachment of trunk and neck muscles
Which is stronger, the anterior or posterior longitudinal ligament?
Anterior is stronger
What are the three movements of the cervical spine?
- lateral flexion
What shape is the vertebral foramen on the thoracic vertebrae?
Small and circular
What is different about the facets for rib articulation on T2-T8 compared to T9-10?
They are demi-facets in the sides of the body on T2-T8 and whole facets on T9-T10
What is the anterior cord mostly used for?
Sensory and motor, light touch, pinprick and pain
What is the posterior cord mostly used for?
Vibration and proprioception
True or false - mostly lateral tracts of the spinal cord move the arms?
False - lateral tracts move the legs, and central tracts move the arms
What is a neural level?
The last functioning spinal level below an injury
What is cervical spondylosis?
Degenerative osteoarthritis of intervertebral joints in cervical spine
What are the consequences of pressure on the spinal cord leading to myelopathy?
- global weakness
- gait dysfunction
- loss of balance
- loss of bladder and bowel control
What are the consequences of pressure on nerve roots leading to radiculopathy?
- dermatomal sensory symptoms
- myotomal motor weakness
What is a hangman's fracture?
Hyperextension of the head on the neck, leading to axis fractures through the pars interarticularis
How is a 'peg fracture' most often caused?
By a blow to the back of the head, eg. from falling against a wall
What is a fracture of the atlas?
- "Jefferson's fracture"
- fracture of anterior and posterior arches of the atlas
- caused by an axial load, eg diving into shallow water or impact on vehicle roof
- usually pain but no neurological signs