Infection - Adaptive Immune Response Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Infection - Adaptive Immune Response > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection - Adaptive Immune Response Deck (29):
1

Give some features of antigen presenting cells

- strategically located (skin, mucous membranes, lymphoid organs, blood circulation)
- pathogen capture (phagocytosis and macropinocytosis of soluble particles)
- diversity in pathogen sensors (can sense both extracellular and intracellular pathogens)

2

Where are dendritic cells found?

Lymph nodes, mucous membranes and blood

3

What do dendritic cells present antigens to?

Naive T-cells

4

Where are Lagerhans cells found?

Skin

5

What do Langerhans cells present antigens to?

Naive T cells

6

Where are macrophages found?

Various tissues

7

What do macrophages present antigens to?

Effector T cells

8

Where are B cells found?

Lymphoid tissues

9

What do B cells present antigens to?

Effector T cells and naive T cells

10

What are major histocompatibility complexes?

They hold the antigens that are presented to T cells

11

True or false - MHCs are only used in humoral immunity?

False - they are used in both humoral and cell-dependent immunity

12

What sort of MHC are HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C?

They are all class 1 molecules, found on all nucleated cells

13

What are HLA-DR, HLA-DQ and HLA-DP all examples of?

Class II molecules, found on dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells

14

Which type of MHC molecules present to intracellular pathogens?

Class I

15

What type of MHC molecule present to extracellular molecules?

Class II molecules

16

Give some key features of MHC class I and II molecules

- co-dominant expression (both parental genes expressed, meaning increased number of different MHC molecules)
- polymorphic genes (different alleles in different individuals increase presentation of different antigens)

17

What are intracellular microbes?

Viruses, some bacteria, protozoa

18

What are extracellular microbes?

Bacteria, parasites, worms, fungi

19

Where are T cells matured?

In the thymus

20

True or false - there are two types of CD4 cell that can be activated to counter extracellular microbes

True - TH2 and TH17. There is only one which can work against intracellular microbes - TH1

21

What are the roles of TH1 CD4+ cells?

- activate CD8 which activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which target infected cells via perforins and granzymes
- activate B cells which produce antibodies
- activate macrophages which work with antibodies to kill opsonised microbes

22

What are the roles of TH2 CD4+ cells?

- activate eosinophils which kill parasites
- activate B cells which produce antibodies
- activate mast cells which cause local inflammation and allergies

23

What is the role of TH17 cells?

Produce neutrophils which phagocytose other molecules

24

What is the difference between the primary and secondary antibody response?

Primary - mostly IgM produced, IgG builds up
Secondary - on secondary infection, less IgM is produced and far more IgG is made, which causes the secondary response to be faster, stronger, have a longer duration and a higher affinity.

25

What are the functions of IgG?

- Fc-dependent phagocytosis
- complement activation
- neonatal immunity
- toxin/virus neutralisation

26

What are the functions of IgA?

Mucosal immunity

27

What are the functions of IgM?

Complement activation

28

What are the functions of IgE?

- Immunity against helminths
- mast cell degranulation

29

Are extracellular microbes attacked by humoral or cell-dependent immunity?

Extracellular microbes - humoral immunity
Intracellular microbes - cell-dependent immunity

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