Infection - Immunocompromised Host Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Infection - Immunocompromised Host > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection - Immunocompromised Host Deck (16):
1

What is an immunocompromised host?

A state in which the immune system is unable to respond appropriately and effectively to infectious microorganisms

2

What is the difference between primary and secondary immunodeficiency?

Primary immunodeficiency is congenital, and due to an intrinsic gene defect. Secondary immunodeficiency is acquired, and due to an underlying disease/treatment

3

What are the characteristic signs of an immunodeficiency?

Infections which are:
- severe
- persistent
- unusual
- recurrent

4

What are the '10 warning signs' used for?

They are used to diagnose an immunodeficiency

5

Give some limitations of the '10 warning signs' for diagnosing immunodeficiencies

- lack of population based evidence
- PID patients may have different defects/presentations
- PID patients may have non-infectious manifestations

6

What may be defective if the onset of ID symptoms comes younger than age 6 months?

A T-cell or phagocyte defect

7

What may be defective if the onset of ID symptoms comes between age 6 months and 5 years?

B-cell or antibody and phagocyte defect

8

What may be defective if the onset of ID symptoms comes when the patient is 5 years old or older?

B-cell/antibody/complement problem OR a secondary immunodeficiency

9

What is chronic granulomatous disease?

This is a hereditary disease where certain cells in the immune system are unable to form the reactive oxygen species (specifically the superoxide radical) which are used to kill ingested pathogens

10

Give some examples of supportive treatments for PID diseases

- infection prevention
- treat infections promptly and aggressively
- nutritional support
- no live vaccines!

11

Give some examples of specific treatments for primary immunodeficiency diseases

- immunoglobulin therapy
- in SCID, can do haematopoietic stem cell therapy

12

Give some causes of secondary immune deficiencies

Decreased production of immune components due to:
- malnutrition
- infection
- liver diseases
- lymphoproliferative diseases
- splenectomy

13

What are asplenic patients particularly at risk of?

Encapsulated bacteria infection and OPSI (overwhelming post-splenectomy infection)

14

How are asplenic patients protected from infection?

- penicillin prophylaxis (life-long)
- immunisation against encapsulated bacteria
- medic alert bracelet

15

What does it suggest if someone constantly has problems with viruses and fungi?

T cell deficiency

16

What does it suggest if someone constantly has problems with bacteria and fungi?

B cell/granulocytes deficiency

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