Infection - Infections On Surfaces Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Infection - Infections On Surfaces > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection - Infections On Surfaces Deck (18):
1

Define a 'surface'

An interface between a solid and either a liquid or a gas

2

What are the sites of potential surface infections on a patient?

- skin (epithelium, hair, nails)
- mucosal surfaces (conjunctival, gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary)

3

What are the viruses found on skin?

Papilloma, herpes simplex

4

What are the gram positive bacteria found on skin?

Staph aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, corynebacterium

5

What are the gram negative skin microorganisms?

Enterobacteriaceae

6

What fungi can be found on the skin?

Yeasts and dermatophytes

7

What parasites can be found on the skin?

Mites

8

What are commensals?

Microorganisms carried on the skin and mucosal surfaces which are normally harmless/beneficial, but can be harmful if transferred to other sites

9

How can a patient get an infection from bacteria which is already in their body?

- invasion by the pathogen
- migration to somewhere it shouldn't be
- inoculation, eg. infection of a prosthetic joint
- haematogenous (spread through bloodstream)

10

What is the difference between the causation of prosthetic valve endocarditis less than 1 year post-operation and over one year post-operation?

Less than one year post operation it is most likely to be caused by viridans streptococci, enterococcus faecalis, staph aureus, HACEK group and candidia. Over 1 year post-op, its more likely to be coagulase negative staphylococci

11

What are the most common causative organisms of prosthetic joint infections and cardiac pacing wire endocarditis?

Coagulase negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus

12

What are the processes in the pathogenesis of infections at surfaces?

- adherence to host cells or prosthetic surfaces
- biofilm formation
- invasion and multiplication
- host response (may be pyogenic or granulomatous)

13

What is a biofilm?

An assemblage of microbial cells which is irreversibly associated with a surface and enclosed in a matrix of primarily polysaccharide material

14

What is quorum sensing?

This is a way that bacteria are able to signal each other through three principles - signalling molecules ('autoinducers'), cell surface/cytoplasmic receptors, and gene expression

15

What does quorum sensing control?

Sporulation, biofilm formation and virulence factor secretion

16

What are the challenges of treating biofilms?

Poor antibacterial penetration into the biofilm, low metabolic activity of biofilm microorganisms, dangers/difficulties of surgery

17

How can infections on a natural surface be prevented?

Maintain surface integrity, prevent bacterial surface colonisation, remove colonising bacteria

18

How can infections on prosthetic surfaces be prevented?

Prevent contamination, inhibit surface colonisation, remove colonising bacteria

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