CVS - Heart Failure Management Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > CVS - Heart Failure Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in CVS - Heart Failure Management Deck (5):
1

Give the classic signs and symptoms of chronic heart failure

- pulmonary congestion
- venous congestion
- dependent oedema
- dyspnoea
- lethargy
- orthopnoea

2

How can we test for chronic heart failure from visible signs?

Prominent JVP and pitting oedema

3

Describe the 'vicious cycle of heart failure'

- decreased CO and SV leads to decreased renal perfusion, so kidneys think the body is losing blood
- kidneys increase sodium/water retention (via RAAS and vasopressin) and therefore blood volume, which increases preload and filling pressure
- this leads to ventricular dilatation and increased wall stress, which compounds CO/SV problems
- decreased renal perfusion also activates neurohormonal systems which cause an increase in systemic vascular resistance and outflow resistance, impairing the function of the left ventricle

4

What are the two main classes of drug used to treat heart failure?

- beta-blockers, which target the sympathetic nervous system
- RAAS inhibitors (ACEI, ARB, MRA), which target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

5

How is a pacemaker lead inserted into the left ventricle?

Through coronary sinus into venous drainage of the left ventricle

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