Flashcards in MSK - Foot And Ankle Conditions Deck (19)
What does 'valgus' mean?
Deviation of the distal limb away from the midline
What does 'varus' mean?
Deviation of the distal limb towards the midline
What is hallux valgus?
Deviation of the toe away from the midline leading to a protruding bump at the base of the toe (a 'bunion')
Which group of patients most often gets hallux valgus?
Middle aged females
What are the treatments fro hallux valgus?
Primary - change shoes, as shoes are often the cause of this problem
Secondary - metatarsal osteotomy (surgical realignment of the big toe bone)
What is hallux rigidus?
Arthritis of the big toe joint, presents with pain in MTPJ and a lump over the joint
What are the X-ray signs of arthritis in big toe?
- loss of joint space
- subchondral sclerosis
Give some conservative treatments of arthritis in ankles
- shoe modifications
- activity modifications
- walking stick
What is ankle arthrodesis?
Fusing the ankle joint with pins to treat arthritis. Patients are able to walk extremely well, although they are unable to point their foot completely.
Which group of patients is most likely to suffer from an Achilles tendon rupture?
Typically people who are 30-50 who engage in sports
How can a ruptured Achilles tendon be tested for?
Patient should have knee bent and rested on the side of the bed/chair. Grab the calf and squeeze it whilst pulling up. If the tendon is ruptured, the foot will not move. If undamaged, foot will move in direction of pull.
What is planovalgus?
Flat feet (no arch). Mostly affects middle aged women
Why are diabetics more at risk of foot injury?
They often have loss of sensation, so they may not realise that they have injured it
What is Charcot arthropathy?
Progressive degeneration of a weight bearing joint, involving loss of bone stock, soft bone due to inflammation and a lack of pain. Leads to massive deformity and bone loss.
Why are some diabetic patients often considered hard to treat?
- may have cognitive problems 'candy brain'
- self neglect
What is Talar shift?
Occurs when talus is not anatomically placed underneath the tibia. This occurs if either the medial malleolus is fractured or the deltoid ligament is ruptured. Most commonly talar shift refers to lateralisation of the talus under the tibia.
What is a 'claw toe'?
A toe that is contracted at the PIP and DIP joints due to tightened ligaments/tendons. Can affect 2nd, 3rd, 4th or 5th toes.
What is a 'hammer toe'?
A deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 2nd, 3rd or 4th toe causing it to be permanently bent, usually a result of poorly fitting shoes.