MEH - Haemopoiesis Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > MEH - Haemopoiesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in MEH - Haemopoiesis Deck (45):
1

Where are most red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells produced?

Bone marrow

2

Where is bone marrow mainly distributed in adulthood?

Pelvis, sternum, skull, ribs, vertebrae

3

How are blood cells produced?

A multipotential haematopoietic stem cell becomes either a common myeloid progenitor or a common lymphoid progenitor.

The lymphoid progenitors form B and T lymphocytes, and the myeloid progenitors form thrombocytes, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils and eosinophils

4

What cells are included in the reticuloendothelial system (RES)?

Monocytes, macrophages, kupffer cells, tissue histiocytes, microglial cells in CNS

5

What do RES cells in the spleen dispose of?

Damaged or old red blood cells

6

What are the functions of red blood cells?

Primary - to deliver oxygen to the tissues

- carry haemoglobin
- maintain haemoglobin in its reduced (ferrous) state
- generate energy (ATP)
- maintain osmotic equilibrium

7

Do red blood cells have a cell membrane?

Yes, a lipid bilayer. They also have membrane proteins inserted into it

8

At what age does the switch from foetal to adult haemoglobin occur?

Around 3-6 months of age

9

What is the function of the globin chains?

- protect haem molecule from oxidation
- confer solubility
- permits variation in oxygen affinity

10

What shape is an oxygen dissociation curve?

Sigmoidal

11

Why do people with too many red blood cells get jaundiced?

Excess of red blood cell destruction causes an excess of bilirubin formation which leads to jaundice

12

What is the function of the RES?

Cells identify and mount an appropriate immune response to foreign antigens

13

What are the main organs of the RES?

Spleen and liver

14

What is a peripheral blood count of haemoglobin used to measure with regards to red blood cells?

Their effectiveness. Normal range is 130-180 g/L (or 115-165 g/L for females)

15

What is a red blood count used to measure with regards to red blood cells?

How many red blood cells are present. Normal range is 4.5-6.5 x 10^12/L (3.9-5.6 in women)

16

What is a peripheral blood count of mean cell volume used to measure with regards to red blood cells?

How large the cells are. Normal range is 80-100 fL

17

How large are red blood cells?

8 micrometres diameter, and they can fit through the capillaries with a diameter of 3.5 micrometres

18

True or false - haemoglobin exists in three configurations?

False - it exists in two (oxyhaemoglobin/relaxed, and deoxyhaemoglobin/tight)

19

Which chromosome is the gene for the globin chain formation found on?

The globin gene clusters on chromosome 11 and 16.

20

How is erythropoiesis controlled by oxygen levels in the body?

- reduced pO2 detected in interstitial peritubular cells in kidney
- increased production of erythropoietin (hormone)
- this stimulates maturation and release of red cells from bone marrow
- haemoglobin rises
- pO2 rises
- erythropoietin production falls

21

What are the two main metabolic pathways in red cells?

1) glycolysis - generates ATP
2) pentose phosphate - generates NADPH

22

True or false - there is no mechanism of excreting iron?

True

23

Give some examples of 'available' iron

- haemoglobin
- myoglobin
- tissue iron (enzyme systems)
- transported iron ('serum iron')

24

Give some examples of 'stored' iron

- ferritin
- haemosiderin (macrophage iron)

25

How do macrophages obtain iron?

They 'eat' old senescent red blood cells. Mainly occurs in splenic macrophages and Kupffer cells of the liver

26

Roughly how much iron enters and leaves the body each day?

1-2 mg

27

Roughly how much iron is required each day in the diet?

10-15 mg

28

What is the diffference between haem and non-haem iron?

Haem iron is from meat sources, while non-haem is from beans, cereals etc

29

What form is haem iron in?

Enters enterocyte and released as Fe2+, so it is FERROUS

30

What form is non-haem iron in?

Mainly Fe3+ (FERRIC) - reduced to ferrous iron before being transported across the intestinal epithelium

31

How does iron enter the bloodstream from the stomach acid?

- found in Fe3+ form in stomach acid
- binds to transferrin and enters cells through apical surface of the duodenum and upper jejunum
- becomes Fe3+ again in cell
- reduced to Fe2+ then moves through cell membrane into blood via ferroportin

32

How is iron taken into cells (eg RBCs)?

Iron-transferrin complex binds to transferrin receptor (TfR). Erythroid cells contain the highest number of these receptors.

33

Which vitamin enhances absorption of iron?

Vitamin C

34

Give some examples of regulators of iron absorption

- regulation of transporters
- expression of receptors
- hepcidin and cytokines
- crosstalk between the epithelial cells and other cells eg macrophages

35

How does hepcidin control iron uptake?

- high levels of iron are detected causing the liver to secrete hepcidin
- hepcidin degrades ferroportin, a protein involved in moving iron out of cells
- this prevents iron release from macrophages and iron absorption from the gut

36

What are the symptoms of anaemia?

- tiredness
- reduced O2 carrying capacity leading to pallor, reduced exercise tolerance
- angina, palpitations, heart failure
- epithelial changes

37

What would a test showing a lowered ferritin level show about an individual?

They are likely to be iron deficient

38

Give some features likely to be observed in a blood film of an anaemic patient

- hypochromic (low Hb content)
- microcytic (low mean cell volume)
- anisopoikilocytosis (change in size and shape of RBCs)
- low reticulocyte haemoglobin content

39

How is iron deficiency treated?

- dietary advice
- oral iron supplements
- intramuscular iron injections
- intravenous iron
- transfusion (only in severe cases)

40

Why is free iron considered dangerous?

When binding capacity of transferrin is exceeded, Fe2+ can produce highly reactive hydroxyl and lipid radicals, which damage the lipid membrane nucleic acids and proteins. Excess iron is deposited in tissues

41

What is haemochromatosis?

A disorder of iron excess resulting in end organ damage due to iron deposition

42

What does haemochromatosis cause?

Liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hypergonadism, cardiomyopathy, arthropathy and skin pigmentation

43

How is hereditary haemochromatosis inherited?

Autosomal recessive mutation in a gene designated HFE on the chromosomes

44

How does a gene mutation cause haemochromatosis?

- Normally, HFE protein competes with transferrin for binding to the transferrin receptor
- mutated HFE can't bind, so transferrin has no competition
- too much iron enters cells

45

What is transfusion associated haemosiderosis?

Accumulation of iron in the bodies of patients who have received frequent blood transfusions, eg patients with thalassaemia

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