MEH 2 - Intro To Metabolism Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > MEH 2 - Intro To Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in MEH 2 - Intro To Metabolism Deck (34):
1

What is meant by 'transport work' in cells?

Energy required for movement of ions and nutrients across membranes

2

What does ATP split into after it is used to provide energy?

ADP and Pi

3

What is the official SI unit of food energy?

Kilojoule

4

What is the general formula of a carbohydrate?

(CH2O)n

5

Put these in order of smallest to largest:

Oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, polysaccharides

- monosaccharides (single sugar units)
- disaccharides (2 units)
- oligosaccharides (3-12 units)
- polysaccharides (10-1000s units)

6

Give an example of a polysaccharide

Glycogen, starch, cellulose

7

Give some examples of dietary disaccharides

- sucrose (glucose-fructose)
- lactose (galactose-glucose)
- maltose (glucose-glucose)

8

True or false - starch is the main carbohydrate storage molecule in animals?

False - it's the main storage molecule in plants. Glycogen is the main carbohydrate storage molecule in animals

9

What are the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesised by the body and must be obtained from other sources?

(Remember the mnemonic: 'if learned this huge list may prove truly valuable')

- isoleucine
- lysine
- threonine
- histidine
- leucine
- methionine
- phenylalanine
- tryptophan
- valine

10

What is fat composed of?

Lipids composed of triacylglycerols (3 fatty acids esterified to one glycerol)

11

Which vitamins are fat-soluble?

Vitamins A, D, E and K

12

Sodium, potassium and chloride are electrolytes. What are these required for?

They establish ion gradients across membranes, and maintain water balance

13

What is the routine maintenance amount of water that should be given through IV fluids?

30 ml/kg/day

14

Give some examples of dietary fibre

- cellulose
- lignin
- pectins
- gums

15

Why can humans not digest cellulose?

We do not make the required enzymes to break the beta-1,4 linkages in cellulose

16

What is the recommended average intake of dietary fibre?

18g/day

17

What are the consequences of a low fibre intake?

Constipation and bowel cancer

18

What are the benefits of a high fibre intake?

Lowers cholesterol and risk of diabetes

19

What are dietary reference values?

A series of estimates of the amount of energy and nutrients needed by different groups of healthy UK population

20

Which factors determine nutrient requirements?

Age, gender and level of physical activity

21

What is daily energy expenditure the sum of?

- basal metabolic rate
- diet-induced thermogenesis (energy required to process food)
- physical activity level

22

Give some factors that affect basal metabolic rate (the value that maintains resting activities of the body)

- body size
- gender
- environmental temperature
- endocrine status
- body temperature

23

What is obesity?

Excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissue which impairs health

24

How is BMI calculated?

Weight (kg) / height squared (metres squared)

25

Which group of individuals may be wrongly classified as obese in the BMI scale?

Very muscular individuals

26

Under which BMI value are people classified as underweight?

18.5

27

What is the BMI range for a desirable weight?

18.5 - 24.9

28

What is BMI range for overweight?

25 - 29.9

29

What is the BMI range for obese?

30 - 34.9

30

Over which BMI value are people classified as severely obese?

35

31

Give an alternative measurement that can be used instead of BMI

Waist/hip ratio

32

Are the BMI classifications different for men and women?

No - the same values correspond to the same classification

33

What problems are associated with having a greater proportion of fat in upper body/abdomen?

- insulin resistance
- hyperinsulinism
- type 2 diabetes
- hypertension
- hyperlipidaemia
- stroke
- premature death

34

How can malnutrition lead to oedema?

Low protein intake can result in insufficient blood protein synthesis leading to a decrease in plasma oncotic pressure, and formation of oedema

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