MSK - Gait Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > MSK - Gait > Flashcards

Flashcards in MSK - Gait Deck (28):
1

Define gait

The mechanism by which the body is transported using coordinated movements of the major lower limb joints. It is an energy efficient interaction between musculoskeletal and neurological systems

2

What are the five attributes of normal gait?

- stability in stance
- foot clearance in swing
- pre-positioning for initial contact
- adequate step length
- energy conservation

3

Define gait cycle

The period of time from initial contact to the next initial contact on the same side

4

How much of a normal gait cycle is made up of stance phase and how much is made up of swing phase?

60% is stance phase, 40% is swing phase

5

What are the periods between stance and swing called in the gait cycle of walking?

'Double support' - this is where both feet are on the ground simultaneously

6

What is the period between stance and swing called in the gait cycle of running?

'Double float', where both feet are off the ground

7

What are the five stages of the stance phase (walking)?

- initial contact (heel strike)
- loading response
- mid-stance (foot flat)
- terminal stance (heel off)
- pre-swing (toe off)

8

What are the three components of the swing phase (walking)?

- initial swing
- mid-swing
- terminal swing

9

Define stride

The distance from initial contact on right foot to the next initial contact on the right foot

10

Define step

Distance from initial contact on the right foot to initial contact on the left foot

11

Define cadence

The number of steps taken per minute

12

What is the difference between kinetics and kinematics?

Kinematics describe motion - joint angles, displacements, velocities, accelerations etc.

Kinetics describe the things that cause motion - forces and moments etc.

13

What can be examined while looking at gait in the sagittal plane?

- pelvic tilt
- flexion/extension of hip, knee and ankle

14

What can be examined while looking at gait in the coronal plane?

- adduction/abduction of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle

15

What can be examined while looking at the body in the transverse plane?

Rotational position of the body and limbs

16

What are the 'three rockers' of ankle kinematics?

- heel rocker: heel is fulcrum as initial contact occurs
- ankle rocker: ankle is fulcrum as centre of gravity shifts
- forefoot rocker: forefoot is fulcrum as heel begins to lift

17

What is the main role of a muscle that is concentric (shortening)?

Acceleration/power generation

18

What is the main role of a muscle that is eccentric (lengthening)?

Deceleration/power absorption

19

What is the role of a muscle that remains isometric during the gait cycle?

Stability

20

How is energy conserved in the gait cycle?

- minimise excursion of centre of gravity
- control momentum
- transfer energy between body segments
- phasic muscle action

21

What is an antalgic gait?

This occurs when there is pain in one leg. There is a short stance phase on the affected leg, and a lack of body weight shift to it. There will be a short swing phase in the unaffected leg, resulting in an uneven gait.

22

When might a hemiplegic gait be observed?

Following hemi-brain injury, eg due to stroke, cerebral palsy or trauma

23

What are the characteristics of a hemiplegic gait?

- flexed upper limb
- extended lower limb
- short step in the unaffected leg
- circumduction of the affected leg

24

When is a diplegic gait seen?

Often in children with cerebral palsy

25

What is the appearance of a diplegic gait?

- 'scissoring' due to tight psoas, adductors, hamstring and calf muscles
- ankle is plantar flexed
- forefoot makes initial contact

26

When is a high steppage gait often seen?

In sciatica, common perineal nerve palsy, other neuromuscular disorders

27

What are the characteristics of a 'high steppage gait'?

They have 'foot drop' where the toe hangs down, so they have excessive hip flexion on the affected side to avoid tripping over feet. They also have a foot slap as their foot hits the floor

28

What are the characteristics of a Parkinsonian gait?

- Shuffling, short steps
- forward flexed (leaning forward)
- no arm swing
- festinant

Decks in CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) Class (87):