Flashcards in Pathology 3 - Acute Inflammation Deck (48)
How does exudation of fluid combat injury?
- Delivers plasma proteins to area of injury eg. immunoglobulins, inflammatory mediators, fibrinogen.
- dilutes toxins
- increases lymphatic drainage (this delivers microorganisms to phagocytes and antigens to immune system)
How does infiltration of cells combat injury?
Removes pathogenic organisms and necrotic debris
How does vasodilatation combat injury?
Increases delivery, increases temperature
How does pain and loss of function combat injury?
Enforces rest, reduces chance of further traumatic damage
Give some local complications of acute inflammation
- swelling can block tubes (eg bile duct)
- exudate can cause compression (cardiac tamponade) and serositis
- loss of fluid eg burns
- pain and loss of functions
Why is fever associated with inflammation?
IL-1 and TNF alpha are important cytokines that also function as endogenous pyrogens. Prostaglandins are also endogenous pyrogens and can be combated with aspirin
Why is leukocytosis associated with acute inflammation?
IL-1 and TNF alpha produce an accelerated release from marrow
What are the symptoms of acute phase response?
Decreased appetite, raised pulse rate, altered sleep patterns and changes in plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins
What are the acute phase proteins?
- C-reactive proteins
- alpha1 antitrypsin
- serum amyloid A protein
What is the name given to the process which occurs once neutrals are no longer marginating, and vessel permeability and calibre has returned to normal?
Give some mechanisms for how resolution can occur
- degradation may inactivate
- inhibitors may bind
- may be unstable
- may be diluted in exudate
- may be specific inhibitors of acute inflammatory changes
What is bacterial meningitis?
Acute inflammation in meninges which can cause vascular thrombosis and reduce cerebral perfusion
What are the symptoms of lobar pneumonia?
Worsening fever, prostration, hypoxaemia over a few days, dry cough and breathlessness
Why is exudate from a blister clear?
There are relatively few inflammatory cells involved
Why os there sometimes pain associated with an abscess?
Can cause high pressure
Give some features of acute inflammation in serous cavities
- Ascites, pleural or pericardial effusion
- respiratory/cardiac impairment
- localised fibrin deposition
Give some sequelae of acute inflammation
- complete resolution
- continued acute inflammation with chronic inflammation (abscess)
- chronic inflammation and fibrous repair, with tissue regeneration