Pathology 3 - Acute Inflammation Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Pathology 3 - Acute Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology 3 - Acute Inflammation Deck (48)
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31

How does exudation of fluid combat injury?

- Delivers plasma proteins to area of injury eg. immunoglobulins, inflammatory mediators, fibrinogen.
- dilutes toxins
- increases lymphatic drainage (this delivers microorganisms to phagocytes and antigens to immune system)

32

How does infiltration of cells combat injury?

Removes pathogenic organisms and necrotic debris

33

How does vasodilatation combat injury?

Increases delivery, increases temperature

34

How does pain and loss of function combat injury?

Enforces rest, reduces chance of further traumatic damage

35

Give some local complications of acute inflammation

- swelling can block tubes (eg bile duct)
- exudate can cause compression (cardiac tamponade) and serositis
- loss of fluid eg burns
- pain and loss of functions

36

Why is fever associated with inflammation?

IL-1 and TNF alpha are important cytokines that also function as endogenous pyrogens. Prostaglandins are also endogenous pyrogens and can be combated with aspirin

37

Why is leukocytosis associated with acute inflammation?

IL-1 and TNF alpha produce an accelerated release from marrow

38

What are the symptoms of acute phase response?

Decreased appetite, raised pulse rate, altered sleep patterns and changes in plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins

39

What are the acute phase proteins?

- C-reactive proteins
- alpha1 antitrypsin
- haptoglobin
- fibrinogen
- serum amyloid A protein

40

What is the name given to the process which occurs once neutrals are no longer marginating, and vessel permeability and calibre has returned to normal?

Resolution

41

Give some mechanisms for how resolution can occur

- degradation may inactivate
- inhibitors may bind
- may be unstable
- may be diluted in exudate
- may be specific inhibitors of acute inflammatory changes

42

What is bacterial meningitis?

Acute inflammation in meninges which can cause vascular thrombosis and reduce cerebral perfusion

43

What are the symptoms of lobar pneumonia?

Worsening fever, prostration, hypoxaemia over a few days, dry cough and breathlessness

44

Why is exudate from a blister clear?

There are relatively few inflammatory cells involved

45

Why os there sometimes pain associated with an abscess?

Can cause high pressure

46

Give some features of acute inflammation in serous cavities

- Ascites, pleural or pericardial effusion
- respiratory/cardiac impairment
- localised fibrin deposition

47

Give some sequelae of acute inflammation

- complete resolution
- continued acute inflammation with chronic inflammation (abscess)
- chronic inflammation and fibrous repair, with tissue regeneration
- death

48

Give some examples of disorders of acute inflammation

- hereditary angio-oedema
- alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
- inherited complement deficiencies
- defects in neutrophil function
- defects in neutrophil numbers

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