Pathology - Haemostasis Flashcards Preview

CJ: UoL Medicine Semester Two (ESA2) > Pathology - Haemostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology - Haemostasis Deck (40)
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Give some examples of congenital problems with blood vessels

- Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia
- connective tissue disorders eg. Ehlers-Danlos


Give some examples of acquired problems with vessels

- senile purpura
- steroids
- infection, eg. measles or meningococcal infection
- scurvy


What is immune thrombocytopenic purpura?

- Most common cause of immune destruction of platelets
- antibodies are formed against the body's own platelets
- can be secondary to autoimmune disorders
- treated with immunosuppression
- platelets transfusions do not work as the transfused platelets are destroyed too


Give some caused of reduced production of platelets

- B12/folate deficiency (failure of the building blocks)
- infiltration of bone marrow by cancer cells or fibrosis
- drugs eg. Chemotherapy, antibiotics
- viruses eg. HIV, infective hepatitis, EBV, CMV


What is thrombocytopenia?

Low platelet count


Give some consequences of severe thrombocytopenia

- easy bruising
- petechiae, purpura
- mucosal bleeding
- severe bleeding after trauma
- intracranial haemorrhage


Which is more common, hereditary or acquired disorders of platelet function?

Acquired is very common while hereditary is extremely rare


Give some causes of acquired disorders of platelet function

- aspirin/NSAIDs/clopidogrel
- uraemia
- hyper gammaglobulinaemia, eg. myeloma
- myeloproliferative disorders


What is disseminated intravascular coagulopathy?

- type of microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia
- pathological activation of coagulation leads to formation of numerous microthrombi in the circulation
- platelets and clotting factors are used up and haemolytic anaemia develops


What are the main triggers of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy?

- malignancy
- massive tissue injury eg burns
- infections (often gram neg sepsis)
- massive haemorrhage and transfusion
- ABO transfusion reaction
- obstetric causes

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