Adverse Drug Reactions Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Adverse Drug Reactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adverse Drug Reactions Deck (75)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are adverse drug reactions?

Any response to a drug which is noxious, unintended and occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis (treatment to prevent disease), diagnosis or treatment

2

What is prophylaxis?

Treatment to prevent disease

3

Adverse drug reactions are the what cause of death (number)?

4th leading cause of death

4

How much hospital admissions occur due to adverse drug reactions?

6.5%

5

How many inpatients suffer adverse drug reactions?

10-20%

6

What are the 3 classifications of the onset of adverse drug reactions?

Acute

Sub-acute

Latent

7

When do acute adverse drug reactions occur?

Within 60 seconds

8

What is an example of an acute adverse drug reaction?

Bronchoconstriction

9

When do sub-acute adverse drug reactions occur?

1 to 24 hours

10

What are examples of sub-acute adverse drug reactions?

Rash

Serum sickness

11

When do latent adverse drug reactions occur?

More than 2 days later

12

What is an example of a latent adverse drug reaction?

Eczematous eruptions

13

What are the 3 classifications of the severity of adverse drug reactions?

Mild

Moderate

Severe

14

What is a mild adverse drug reaction?

Bothersome but requires no change in therapy

15

What is an example of a mild adverse drug reaction?

Metallic taste with metronidazole

16

What is a moderate adverse drug reaction?

One which requires a change in therapy and some additional treatment

17

What is an example of a moderate adverse drug reaction?

Amphotericin induced hypokalaemia

18

What is a severe adverse drug reaction?

Disabling or life threatening

19

What is an example of a severe adverse drug reaction?

Kidney failure

20

What are the classifications of adverse drug reactions?

Type A (augmented)

Type B (bizarre)

Type C (chronic)

Type D (delayed)

Type E (end of treatment)

Type F (failure of treatment)

21

How can type A (augmented) drug reactions be described?

Dose related

Predictable

22

How can type B (bizarre) adverse drug reactions be described?

Idiopathic

Unpredictable

23

What are predisposing factors of adverse drug reactions?

Multiple drug therapy (incidents increase exponentially with the number of medicaments)

Inter-current disease (renal and hepatic impairments)

Race and genetic polymorphisms

Age (elderly and neonates)

Sex (more common in woman)

24

What does predisposing mean?

Make more liable

25

What are some inter-current diseases that increases the risk of adverse drug reactions?

Renal and hepatic impairment

26

Who are more likely to experience adverse drug reactions out of men and woman?

Woman

27

28

What are type A (augmented) adverse drug reactions due to?

Excess pharmacological action

29

What are examples of excess pharmacological action that causes type A (augmented) adverse drug reactions?

Bradycardia with beta-blockers

Hypoglycaemia with insulin

30

What is the most common adverse reaction and what percentage of total reactions does this account for?

80% of adverse drug reactions are type A (augmented)