What are adverse drug reactions?
Any response to a drug which is noxious, unintended and occurs at doses used in man for prophylaxis (treatment to prevent disease), diagnosis or treatment
What is prophylaxis?
Treatment to prevent disease
Adverse drug reactions are the what cause of death (number)?
4th leading cause of death
How much hospital admissions occur due to adverse drug reactions?
How many inpatients suffer adverse drug reactions?
What are the 3 classifications of the onset of adverse drug reactions?
When do acute adverse drug reactions occur?
Within 60 seconds
What is an example of an acute adverse drug reaction?
When do sub-acute adverse drug reactions occur?
1 to 24 hours
What are examples of sub-acute adverse drug reactions?
When do latent adverse drug reactions occur?
More than 2 days later
What is an example of a latent adverse drug reaction?
What are the 3 classifications of the severity of adverse drug reactions?
What is a mild adverse drug reaction?
Bothersome but requires no change in therapy
What is an example of a mild adverse drug reaction?
Metallic taste with metronidazole
What is a moderate adverse drug reaction?
One which requires a change in therapy and some additional treatment
What is an example of a moderate adverse drug reaction?
Amphotericin induced hypokalaemia
What is a severe adverse drug reaction?
Disabling or life threatening
What is an example of a severe adverse drug reaction?
What are the classifications of adverse drug reactions?
Type A (augmented)
Type B (bizarre)
Type C (chronic)
Type D (delayed)
Type E (end of treatment)
Type F (failure of treatment)
How can type A (augmented) drug reactions be described?
How can type B (bizarre) adverse drug reactions be described?
What are predisposing factors of adverse drug reactions?
Multiple drug therapy (incidents increase exponentially with the number of medicaments)
Inter-current disease (renal and hepatic impairments)
Race and genetic polymorphisms
Age (elderly and neonates)
Sex (more common in woman)
What does predisposing mean?
Make more liable
What are some inter-current diseases that increases the risk of adverse drug reactions?
Renal and hepatic impairment
Who are more likely to experience adverse drug reactions out of men and woman?
What are type A (augmented) adverse drug reactions due to?
Excess pharmacological action
What are examples of excess pharmacological action that causes type A (augmented) adverse drug reactions?
Bradycardia with beta-blockers
Hypoglycaemia with insulin
What is the most common adverse reaction and what percentage of total reactions does this account for?
80% of adverse drug reactions are type A (augmented)