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Flashcards in Therapeutic Options Deck (54)
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1

What do therapeutic options for cancer involve?

Both prevention and treatment

2

What are prevention options for cancer?

Environment/behaviour changes

Diet

Screening

Genetics

Medication/vaccination

3

What are treatment options for cancer?

Surgery

Radiotherapy

Systematic therapy

Immunotherapy

4

What is immunotherapy?

Type of cancer treatment that boosts the body's natural defences to fight cancer

5

What does evidence suggest colorectal cancer is increased with the consumption off?

Red meat

6

What does evidence suggest breast cancer is increased with the consumption of?

Saturated fat

7

What is the current advice for diet?

Eat 5 or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day

Avoid obesity

Regular exercise (30 mins a day)

8

What are the 2 classes of screening, in terms of societies optionions?

High quality research evidence

More controversial

9

What are examples of high quality research evidence screening?

Cervical cancer (smear test)

Colorectal cancer (blood in faeces)

Breast cancer (mammography)

10

What are examples of controversial screening?

Prostate cancer (PSA blood test)

Lung cancer (MR/CT screening)

11

What are examples of hereditary genes that increase cancer risk?

FAP increase colorectal cancer

BRCA1 and BRCA2 increasing breast cancer

12

What is a very controversial form of prevention?

Chemo-prevention

13

What is chemoprevention useful for?

Primary such as oesphagael cancer and breast cancer

Secondary such as head and neck or lung cancer

14

What is a common kind of chemo-prevention that is not believed to be of much use?

Anti-oxidants

15

What kind of cancer is heavily linked with lung cancer, meaning if you have one you are likely to have the other?

Head and neck cancer

16

What are the 2 general kinds of treatment?

Local or regional

Systematic

17

What are examples of local or regional treatments?

Surgery

Radiotherapy

Ablation (radiowaves or freezing)

Isolated limb perfusion (chemotherapy directly to the limb)

18

What is ablation?

Radio waves or freezing

19

What is isolated limb perfusion?

Chemotherapy directly to the limb

20

What are kinds of systematic treatments?

Hormonal therapy

Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy

Whole body irradiation

21

What can staging tell us?

Where is the cancer

What kind of cancer

22

What is used to tell us where a cancer is?

Examination

Imaging

23

What is used to tell us the kind of cancer?

Pathology

24

What does surgery need?

Anatomical clearance (complete removal of the tumour)

25

26

What is anatomical clearance?

Complete removal of the tumour

27

What can radiotherapy do?

Treat inoperable lesions

Make surgery more possible

Maintain function or appearance

28

What does radiotherapy need, just like surgery?

Complete anatomical coverage

29

What are the 5 R's of radiobiology?

Radio sensitivity (some tumours are not sensitive to treatment)

Repair (no breaks does not allow the tumour to grow so improves survival)

Re-population

Re-oxygenation (oxygen makes cells more sensitive to treatment)

Re-assortment (tumours are least sensitive during the DNA replication stage of the cell cycle

30

When are tumours least sensitive to radiotherapy?

During the DNA replication stage of the cell cycle