What do therapeutic options for cancer involve?
Both prevention and treatment
What are prevention options for cancer?
What are treatment options for cancer?
What is immunotherapy?
Type of cancer treatment that boosts the body's natural defences to fight cancer
What does evidence suggest colorectal cancer is increased with the consumption off?
What does evidence suggest breast cancer is increased with the consumption of?
What is the current advice for diet?
Eat 5 or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day
Regular exercise (30 mins a day)
What are the 2 classes of screening, in terms of societies optionions?
High quality research evidence
What are examples of high quality research evidence screening?
Cervical cancer (smear test)
Colorectal cancer (blood in faeces)
Breast cancer (mammography)
What are examples of controversial screening?
Prostate cancer (PSA blood test)
Lung cancer (MR/CT screening)
What are examples of hereditary genes that increase cancer risk?
FAP increase colorectal cancer
BRCA1 and BRCA2 increasing breast cancer
What is a very controversial form of prevention?
What is chemoprevention useful for?
Primary such as oesphagael cancer and breast cancer
Secondary such as head and neck or lung cancer
What is a common kind of chemo-prevention that is not believed to be of much use?
What kind of cancer is heavily linked with lung cancer, meaning if you have one you are likely to have the other?
Head and neck cancer
What are the 2 general kinds of treatment?
Local or regional
What are examples of local or regional treatments?
Ablation (radiowaves or freezing)
Isolated limb perfusion (chemotherapy directly to the limb)
What is ablation?
Radio waves or freezing
What is isolated limb perfusion?
Chemotherapy directly to the limb
What are kinds of systematic treatments?
Whole body irradiation
What can staging tell us?
Where is the cancer
What kind of cancer
What is used to tell us where a cancer is?
What is used to tell us the kind of cancer?
What does surgery need?
Anatomical clearance (complete removal of the tumour)
What is anatomical clearance?
Complete removal of the tumour
What can radiotherapy do?
Treat inoperable lesions
Make surgery more possible
Maintain function or appearance
What does radiotherapy need, just like surgery?
Complete anatomical coverage
What are the 5 R's of radiobiology?
Radio sensitivity (some tumours are not sensitive to treatment)
Repair (no breaks does not allow the tumour to grow so improves survival)
Re-oxygenation (oxygen makes cells more sensitive to treatment)
Re-assortment (tumours are least sensitive during the DNA replication stage of the cell cycle
When are tumours least sensitive to radiotherapy?
During the DNA replication stage of the cell cycle