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Flashcards in Principles of Immunisation Deck (46)
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1

What are the two types of immunity?

Adaptive

Innate

2

What is innate immunity?

First line defence from infection in a non-specific manner

3

What is adaptive immunity?

Highly specialised elimination of pathogens with the creation of an immunological memory

4

What are the two forms of adaptive immunity?

Active

Passive

5

What is active immunity?

Protection produced by your own immune system

6

What is passive immunity?

Immune response that involves antibodies that are obtained from outside the body

7

What are the two forms of active and passive immunity?

Natural

Artificial

8

What are examples of natural artificial active immunity?

Active natural immunity is infection or exposure

Active artificial immunity is immunisation vaccines

9

What are examples of natural and artificial passive immunity?

Natural passive immunity is mother passing on antibodies to baby

Artificial passive immunity is immunological therapy

10

Which of active and passive immunity are specific?

Both of them, being part of the adaptive immune system

11

What kind of adaptive immunity creates immunological memory?

Only active, not passive

12

What are advantages of passive immunity?

Gives immediate protection

Quick fix

13

What are disadvantages of passive immunity?

No immunological memory

Could lead to serum sickness (incoming antibody is recognised as a foreign antigen resulting in anaphylaxis)

14

What is an advantage of active immunity?

Long term immunity due to the creation of immunological memory

15

What is a disadvantage of active immunity?

No immediate effect

16

What does an immunological memory allow?

A larger, more effective and more precise response on re-exposure

17

What is vaccination?

Adminstration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to the pathogen

18

What are common diseases that we vaccinate?

Measles

Mumps

Rebella

Polio

19

What are different kinds of vaccines?

Killed whole organism

Attenuated whole organism (mainly virsuses)

Subunit (recombinant proteins)

Toxoid (toxin treated with formalin)

20

What is a risk of using a killed whole organism as a vaccine?

Must be killed efffectively as any live virus can result in disease

21

What is an advantage and disadvantage of using an attenuated whole organism as a vaccine?

Very powerful and better than killed

Refrigeration required

22

What is an advantage and a disadvantage of using a subunit as a vaccine?

Safe

Not very immunogenic without an effective adjuvant

23

What is an adjuvant?

Enhances an antigen specific immune response

24

What is an attenuated whole organism?

Avirulent strain of target organism

25

What is the attenuation mechanism?

1) Pathogenic virus is isolated from patient and grown in human cultured cells

2) Cultured virus is used to infect monkeys

3) Virus acquires mutations to allow it to grow in monkey cells

4) Virus no longer grows in human cells and can be used as a vaccine

26

What do children have to protect them from common pathogens?

An immunisation schedule that lasts from birth until up to 18 years old

27

What are some vaccines that are apart of a child's immunisation schedule?

Tetanus/polio at 2/4months

Influenza at 2/4 years

HPV at 13 years (females only)

Tetanus/polio at 13/18 years

28

Who are tuberculosis (BCG) and hepatisis B vaccines given to?

People at birth who have increased risk to exposure

29

What are examples of high risk groups?

Elderly (given influenza and shingles)

IV drug users (given hepatitis A/B)

Chronic medical conditions (given S pneumoniae and influenza)

Occupational risk (given hepatitis A/B and bacillus anthracis)

30

What are people from high risk groups given?

Additional vaccines