What are the two types of immunity?
What is innate immunity?
First line defence from infection in a non-specific manner
What is adaptive immunity?
Highly specialised elimination of pathogens with the creation of an immunological memory
What are the two forms of adaptive immunity?
What is active immunity?
Protection produced by your own immune system
What is passive immunity?
Immune response that involves antibodies that are obtained from outside the body
What are the two forms of active and passive immunity?
What are examples of natural artificial active immunity?
Active natural immunity is infection or exposure
Active artificial immunity is immunisation vaccines
What are examples of natural and artificial passive immunity?
Natural passive immunity is mother passing on antibodies to baby
Artificial passive immunity is immunological therapy
Which of active and passive immunity are specific?
Both of them, being part of the adaptive immune system
What kind of adaptive immunity creates immunological memory?
Only active, not passive
What are advantages of passive immunity?
Gives immediate protection
What are disadvantages of passive immunity?
No immunological memory
Could lead to serum sickness (incoming antibody is recognised as a foreign antigen resulting in anaphylaxis)
What is an advantage of active immunity?
Long term immunity due to the creation of immunological memory
What is a disadvantage of active immunity?
No immediate effect
What does an immunological memory allow?
A larger, more effective and more precise response on re-exposure
What is vaccination?
Adminstration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to the pathogen
What are common diseases that we vaccinate?
What are different kinds of vaccines?
Killed whole organism
Attenuated whole organism (mainly virsuses)
Subunit (recombinant proteins)
Toxoid (toxin treated with formalin)
What is a risk of using a killed whole organism as a vaccine?
Must be killed efffectively as any live virus can result in disease
What is an advantage and disadvantage of using an attenuated whole organism as a vaccine?
Very powerful and better than killed
What is an advantage and a disadvantage of using a subunit as a vaccine?
Not very immunogenic without an effective adjuvant
What is an adjuvant?
Enhances an antigen specific immune response
What is an attenuated whole organism?
Avirulent strain of target organism
What is the attenuation mechanism?
1) Pathogenic virus is isolated from patient and grown in human cultured cells
2) Cultured virus is used to infect monkeys
3) Virus acquires mutations to allow it to grow in monkey cells
4) Virus no longer grows in human cells and can be used as a vaccine
What do children have to protect them from common pathogens?
An immunisation schedule that lasts from birth until up to 18 years old
What are some vaccines that are apart of a child's immunisation schedule?
Tetanus/polio at 2/4months
Influenza at 2/4 years
HPV at 13 years (females only)
Tetanus/polio at 13/18 years
Who are tuberculosis (BCG) and hepatisis B vaccines given to?
People at birth who have increased risk to exposure
What are examples of high risk groups?
Elderly (given influenza and shingles)
IV drug users (given hepatitis A/B)
Chronic medical conditions (given S pneumoniae and influenza)
Occupational risk (given hepatitis A/B and bacillus anthracis)
What are people from high risk groups given?