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Flashcards in An Introduction to Medical Microbiology Deck (40)
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1

What are possible infecting agents?

 

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Parasites

Prions

2

What are the two areas of the body in terms of organisms?

Sterile and non-sterile

3

What is a sterile site?

One which normally does not have infection

4

What is a non-sterile sites?

One which has some degree of harmless infection, usually associated with the outside world

5

What are examples of sterile sites?

Blood

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Lung

Bladder

6

What are examples of non-sterile sites?

Skin

Nasopharynx

Urethra

Gut

7

Which kind of sites is easier to diagnose a harmful infection?

Sterile sites because you are not expecting to find anything there

8

What are some common speciments collected for bacterial culture?

Mid-stream urine (urinary tract infection)

Sputum (chest infection)

Throat swab (tonsillitis)

Swab or pus (wound or site of infection)

Faeces (diarrhoea)

Blood culture (bacteraemia)

Cerebro-spinal fluid (meningitis)

9

What are different ways of looking for pathogens?

Microscopy

Gram stain and microscopy

Bacterial culture

10

In what site does microscopy work well?

Sterile sites but not non-sterile sites

11

What can microscopes not see?

Viruses, they are too small

12

What can unstained microscopy see?

Pus cells (in urine)

Parasites (in faeces)

13

What is stained microscopy used to see?

Yeasts

Fungi

14

How can flourescent bacteria be seen?

By using flourescent staining such as auramine. such as for mycobacteria

15

What does gram staining identify?

Whether the bacteria is gram negative or gram positive

16

How does gram negative bacteria appear when gram staining?

Pale red

17

How does gram positive appear when gram staining?

Dark purple

18

What is an advantage of microscopy?

It is quick

19

What can gram staining not identify?

The specific speices present

20

What does gram staining not being 'sensitive' mean?

There needs to be lots of bacteria present for it to work

21

What are properties of bacterial culture?

It is slow

It is sensitive (do not need lots of bacteria)

22

What can be changed in a bacterial culture?

Culture conditions to promote the growth of certain species

23

What are things that can be controlled in a bacterial culture?

Type of media (selective/non-selective)

Atmosphere

Temperature

Duration of incubation

24

What are observable characteristics that can be used to identify a species?

Morphological

Physiological

Biochemical

25

What distinguishes strains within a species?

Typing

26

How can viral infections be diagnosed?

Molecular methods (such as real time PCR)

Antigen detection

Serology

Electron microscopy

Cell or tissue culture

27

What is not really used now for detecting viruses?

Electron microscopy

Cell or tissue culture

28

What is serology?

Detecting antibodies that the patient has produced against the virus

29

What are the 3 classes of parasites?

Protozoa

Helminths (worms)

Arthropods

30

What are examples of protozoa?

Malaria

Amoebae

Flagellates