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Flashcards in Genetics Predisposition to Cancer Deck (47)
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1

What do a small proportions of cancers happen due to?

Increased inherited predisposition to cancer (genetic)

2

What are the 2 different kinds of gene mutations that cancer can arise from?

Somatic mutations

Germline mutations

3

Where to somatic mutations occur?

In somatic tissue, nongermline

4

What can you say about the inheritability of somatic and germline mutations?

Somatic cannot be inherited and germline can

5

Where are germline mutations present?

In egg or sperm

6

7

What are some genetic processes associated with cancer?

Oncogenes

Tumour suppresor genes

DNA damage response genes

8

What are proto-oncogenes?

Normal gene that codes for proteins to regulate cell growth and differentiation

9

What can mutations change into oncogenes and what does this do?

Proto-oncogenes which accerlerates cell division

10

What are tumour suppresor genes?

Genes that inhibit cell cycle or promotes apoptosis

11

What happens when tumour suppresor genes fail?

Cancer arises

12

What are DNA damage response genes?

Repair mechanism for DNA

13

What happens when DNA damage response genes fail?

Cancer arises due to speeding the accumulation of mutations in other critical genes

14

What is an example of a DNA damage response gene?

Mismatch repair genes (MMR genes)

15

What do mismatch repair (MMR) genes do?

Corrects errors that spontaneously occur during DNA replication like single base mismatches or short insertions and deletions

16

What does mismatch repair failure lead to?

Microsatellite instability (MSI) where there is the addition of nucleotide repeats, which is the phenotypic evidence that MMR is not functioning normally

17

What is microsatellite instability (MSI)?

Where there is an addition of nucleotide repeats, which is phenotypic evidents that mismatch repair genes (MMR) are not working correctly

18

What are the 3 kinds of tumours?

Benign

Malignant

Dysplastic

19

What are some properties of benign tumours?

Lack the ability to metastasize

Rarely or never become cancerous

Can cause negative health benefits due to pressure on other organs

20

What are some properties of dysplastic tumours?

Benign but could progress to malignancy

Cells show abnormalities of appearance and cell maturation

21

What is a unique property of malignant tumours?

Able to metastasize

22

What are some other causes of cancer in relation to genes?

Autosomal recessive syndromes

Multiple modifier genes of lower genetic risk

23

What are de novo mutations?

Occur in germ cells of parents with no family history of hereditary cancer syndrome

24

What are de novo mutations common in?

Famial adenomatous polyposis

Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B

Hereditary retinoblastoma

25

What is hereditory retinoblastoma?

Most common eye tumour in children

26

What is the type of inheritence of most cancer susceptability genes?

Dominant

27

What are some risk factors for breast cancer?

Ageing

Family history

Late menopause

Early menarche

Nulliparty (condition where woman cannot give birth)

Estrogen use

Dietary factors (alcohol)

Lack of exercise

28

29

What is nulliparty?

Condition where woman cannot give birth

30

What are some genes that increase hereditory susceptability to breast cancer?

BRCA1

BRCA2

TP53

PTEN