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Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 3 Deck (22)
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1

What are local effects of benign tumours?

Pressure

Obstruction

2

What are local effects of malignant tumours?

Pressure

Obstruction

Tissue destruction

Bleeding

Pain

Effects on treatment

3

What tissue destruction may malignant tumours cause?

Ulceration

Infection

4

What bleeding may malignant tumours cause?

Anaemia

Haemorrhage

5

What pain may malignant tumours cause?

Pressure on nerves

Perineural infiltration

Bone pain from pathological fractures

6

What are systematic effects of malignant tumours?

Weight loss

Secretion of hormones

Paraneoplastic syndromes (altered immune response to a neoplasm)

Effects of treatment

7

What are the possible kinds of hormone secretion due to a malignant tumour?

Normal

Abnormal/inappropiate

 

8

What is normal horome secretion due to a malignant tumour?

Normal hormones are produced but abnormal control

9

What is abnormal hormone secretion due to a malignant tumour?

Produced by a tumour from an organ that does not normally produce that hormone

10

What is an example of a cancer producing abnormal hormones?

Lung cancer producing ACTH and ADH

11

What are paraneoplastic syndromes?

Ones that cannot be explained by local or metastasis effects, such as neuropathy (damge to peripheral nerves) or myopathy (disease in muscles where fibres do not function properly)

12

What is neopathy?

Damage to peripheral nerves

13

What is myopathy?

Disease in the muscle where fibres do not function properly

14

What does detecting cancer at an early stage do?

Reduces mortility

15

What is detected to detect cancer at an early stage?

Dysplasia

Intraepithelial neoplasia

16

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal development of growth and differentiation

17

What is intraepithelial neoplasia?

Development of benign neoplasia or high grade dysplasia in an epithelium

18

What are properties of dysplasia?

Pre-malignant change

Identified in epithelium

No invasion

Can progress to cancer so patient needs to be monitored

May be high or low grade

19

What could features of a dysplasia be?

Increased nuclear size

Increased metabolic activity

Abnormal mitosis

20

What does the early detection of cancer require?

Effective screening

21

What must effective screening be?

Specific

Acceptable

22

What are the 3 NHS screening programs?

Breast

Cervical

Colon