What are local effects of benign tumours?
What are local effects of malignant tumours?
Effects on treatment
What tissue destruction may malignant tumours cause?
What bleeding may malignant tumours cause?
What pain may malignant tumours cause?
Pressure on nerves
Bone pain from pathological fractures
What are systematic effects of malignant tumours?
Secretion of hormones
Paraneoplastic syndromes (altered immune response to a neoplasm)
Effects of treatment
What are the possible kinds of hormone secretion due to a malignant tumour?
What is normal horome secretion due to a malignant tumour?
Normal hormones are produced but abnormal control
What is abnormal hormone secretion due to a malignant tumour?
Produced by a tumour from an organ that does not normally produce that hormone
What is an example of a cancer producing abnormal hormones?
Lung cancer producing ACTH and ADH
What are paraneoplastic syndromes?
Ones that cannot be explained by local or metastasis effects, such as neuropathy (damge to peripheral nerves) or myopathy (disease in muscles where fibres do not function properly)
What is neopathy?
Damage to peripheral nerves
What is myopathy?
Disease in the muscle where fibres do not function properly
What does detecting cancer at an early stage do?
What is detected to detect cancer at an early stage?
What is dysplasia?
Abnormal development of growth and differentiation
What is intraepithelial neoplasia?
Development of benign neoplasia or high grade dysplasia in an epithelium
What are properties of dysplasia?
Identified in epithelium
Can progress to cancer so patient needs to be monitored
May be high or low grade
What could features of a dysplasia be?
Increased nuclear size
Increased metabolic activity
What does the early detection of cancer require?
What must effective screening be?
What are the 3 NHS screening programs?