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Flashcards in An Introduction to Bacteria Deck (57)
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1

What does the structure of bacteria contain?

Capsule

Cell wall

Cytoplasmic/inner/plasma membrane

Cytoplasm

Ribosomes

Single chromosome, no nucleus

Flagellum

Finbriae

2

What does the cytoplasm do?

Contains nutrients taken up from the environment

3

What do ribosomes do?

Site of protein synthesis

4

What does the cytoplasmic membrane do?

Diffusion of ions and nutrients

5

What does the cell wall do?

Combats osmotic stresses

6

What does the capsule do?

Helps the bacteria to survive in humans, for example escaping macrophages

7

What do flagellum do?

Allows the bacteria to move

8

What does fimbriae do?

Important for attachment

9

What do chromosomes do?

Contains DNA

10

What does the plasmid do?

DNA outside of the chromosome

11

What kind of bacteria has an additional membrane?

Gram negative bacteria

12

What kind of bacteria has a thicker layer of peptidoglycan?

Gram positive bacteria

13

What are the layers (going inwards to outwards) in gram positive bacteria?

Plasma membrane

Periplasmic space

Peptidoglycan

14

What are the layers (going inwards to outwards) in the plasma membrane of gram negative bacteria?

Plasma membrane

Periplasmic space

Peptidoglycan

Periplasmic space

Outer membrane (lipopolysaccharide and protein)

15

What does the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria contain?

Lipopolyassacharide and proteins

16

What colour does gram positive bacteria appear in gram staining?

Purple

17

What colour does gram negative bacteria appear in gram staining?

Red

18

What are two classes of bacteria after aerobic/anaerobic?

Cocci or bacilli

19

What do cocci bacteria look like?

Spherical shaped

20

What do bacilli bacteria look like?

Rod shaped

21

What proteins are present on the cell surface of bacteria that creates cross links?

Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)

22

What are examples of penicillin binding proteins?

Transpeptidases

Carboxypeptidases

Endopeptidases

23

What are lipopolysaccharides?

They are present only on gram negative bacteria and elicit a strong immune response in animals and humans

24

What does the capsule provide bacteria with?

Water to survive in many environments

25

What are the different kinds of flagellum?

A-monotrichous vibrio cholera (one)

B-lophotrichious spirillum spp (one point)

C-amphitchous rhondospirillum rabrum (both sides)

D-peritichous (all over)

26

What do some bacteria release?

Spores which help it to obtain nutrients

27

When does spore formation occur?

When there is not enough nutrients for fission or environmental factors do not allow it

28

What does spore formation allow?

The bacteria to survive in tough environments

29

What is the process of spore formation?

1) DNA condenses and lines itself in the centre of the cell

2) DNA divides into two copies

3) Mother cell invaginates to form developing forespore

4) Moth cell engulfs developing spore which is surrounded by two membranes

5) Mother cell DNA is degraded

6) Peptiglycan laid down to form cortex

7) Ca2+ enters and water is removed from the spore

8) Protein coat forms exterior to cortex

9) Some spores form exosporium

10) Enzymes destroy mother cell and mature spore is released

30

What are exoporium?

Outer surface layer of mature spores