What does the structure of bacteria contain?
Single chromosome, no nucleus
What does the cytoplasm do?
Contains nutrients taken up from the environment
What do ribosomes do?
Site of protein synthesis
What does the cytoplasmic membrane do?
Diffusion of ions and nutrients
What does the cell wall do?
Combats osmotic stresses
What does the capsule do?
Helps the bacteria to survive in humans, for example escaping macrophages
What do flagellum do?
Allows the bacteria to move
What does fimbriae do?
Important for attachment
What do chromosomes do?
What does the plasmid do?
DNA outside of the chromosome
What kind of bacteria has an additional membrane?
Gram negative bacteria
What kind of bacteria has a thicker layer of peptidoglycan?
Gram positive bacteria
What are the layers (going inwards to outwards) in gram positive bacteria?
What are the layers (going inwards to outwards) in the plasma membrane of gram negative bacteria?
Outer membrane (lipopolysaccharide and protein)
What does the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria contain?
Lipopolyassacharide and proteins
What colour does gram positive bacteria appear in gram staining?
What colour does gram negative bacteria appear in gram staining?
What are two classes of bacteria after aerobic/anaerobic?
Cocci or bacilli
What do cocci bacteria look like?
What do bacilli bacteria look like?
What proteins are present on the cell surface of bacteria that creates cross links?
Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)
What are examples of penicillin binding proteins?
What are lipopolysaccharides?
They are present only on gram negative bacteria and elicit a strong immune response in animals and humans
What does the capsule provide bacteria with?
Water to survive in many environments
What are the different kinds of flagellum?
A-monotrichous vibrio cholera (one)
B-lophotrichious spirillum spp (one point)
C-amphitchous rhondospirillum rabrum (both sides)
D-peritichous (all over)
What do some bacteria release?
Spores which help it to obtain nutrients
When does spore formation occur?
When there is not enough nutrients for fission or environmental factors do not allow it
What does spore formation allow?
The bacteria to survive in tough environments
What is the process of spore formation?
1) DNA condenses and lines itself in the centre of the cell
2) DNA divides into two copies
3) Mother cell invaginates to form developing forespore
4) Moth cell engulfs developing spore which is surrounded by two membranes
5) Mother cell DNA is degraded
6) Peptiglycan laid down to form cortex
7) Ca2+ enters and water is removed from the spore
8) Protein coat forms exterior to cortex
9) Some spores form exosporium
10) Enzymes destroy mother cell and mature spore is released
What are exoporium?
Outer surface layer of mature spores