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Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 2 Deck (40)
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1

What are the 2 groups of genes that cause cancer?

Suppresor genes

Oncogenes (promote tumour development, are normally switched of)

2

What are some properties of cancers?

Altered cellular function

Abnormal morphology

Cells capable of independant growth

No single feature is unique to tumour cells

Tumour biomarkers

3

What is the altered function in cancers?

Loss of cell to cell adhesion

Altered cell to matrix adhesion

Production of tumour related proteins (tumour biomarkers)

4

What are tumour biomarkers?

Ono-fetal proteins

Oncogenes

Growth factor and receptors

Immune checkpoint inhibitors

5

What are tumour biomarkers used clinically for?

Screening

Diagnosis

Prognostic (identifying patients with specific outcome)

Predictive (identifying patients who will response to a particular therapy)

6

What is the difference between diagnosis and screening?

Diagnosis is once the patient is already symptomatic whereas screening is before the symptoms are apparent

7

What are some examples of tumour biomarkers?

Alpha-fetoprotein 

Carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)

Oestrogen receptor

Prostate specific antigen

Kras

Braf

EGFR

PD-L1

Her2

8

What cancer shows alpha-fetoprotein?

Teratoma of testis

Hepatocellular carcinoma

9

What cancer shows carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA)?

Colorectal cancer

10

What cancer shows oestrogen receptors?

Breast cancer

11

What cancer shows prostate specific antigen?

Prostate cancer

12

What cancer shows Kras?

Colorectal cancer

13

What cancer shows Braf?

Melanoma

14

What cancer shows EGFR?

Lung cancer

15

What cancer shows PD-L1?

Lung cancer

16

What cancer shows Her2?

Breast cancer

Gastric cancer

17

What do you see in morphology of cancer?

Cellular and nuclear pleomorphism (marked variation in size and shape)

Mitosis present and often abnormal (cell division not normal as chromosomes are not structured)

18

What is tumour growth a balance between?

Cell growth (angiogenesis) and cell death (apoptosis)

19

What happens during tumour angiogenesis?

New blood vessels are formed by the tumours that provides a route for the release of tumour cells in circulation

20

What does greater tumour angiogenesis mean?

Poorer prognosis (outcome)

21

What is apoptosis?

The mechanism for programmed cell death

22

What is metastasis?

Spread of cancer

23

What are metastatic tumours?

Secondary tumours

24

What is a major clinical problem of cancer?

Formation of metastatic tumours

25

What is invasion and metastasis due to?

Increased matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes

Altered cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion

26

What is the cell to cell adhesion of tumours like throughout their lifetime?

At some point they need to be stuck together, and at other points they need to be seperate to spread

27

What are different modes for the spread of cancer?

Local spread (invastion of primary tumours in adjacent structures)

Lymphatic spread (to lymph nodes)

Blood spread (to other tissues and organs in the body)

Trans-coelomic spread (through cavities such as pleural)

28

What is the process of tumour invasion?

1) Malignant tumour

2) Invasion into connective tissue

3) Invastion into lymph/blood vessels

29

What is the process of tumour metastasis via lymphatics?

1) Adherance of tumour cells to lymph vessels

2) Invasion from lymphatics

3) Invastion into lymph nodes

4) Formation of metastasis in lymph node

5) Clinical evidence of metastasis

30

What is the process of tumour metastasis via blood?

1) Adherance of tumour cells to blood vessels

2) Invasion from blood vessels

3) Invasion into tissue

4) Formation of metastasis

5) Clinical evidence of metastasis