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1

What is a parasite?

An organism that lives in another organism (host) and gets its food at the expense of the host

2

How does the complexity of parasites compare to bacteria?

They are simple organisms but more complex than bacteria

3

What do parasites cause?

Many diseases with malaria causing the most deaths globally

4

What are the 3 classes of parasites?

Protozoa

Helminths (worms)

Arthropods

5

What are examples of protozoa?

Malaria

Amoebae

Flagellate

Leishmaniasis

6

How is malaria spread?

By mosquito

7

What are symptoms of amoebae?

Diarrhoea with blood/pus and cysts formed in stool

8

What does leishmaniasis cause?

Skin or mucosal ulceration

Leads to fever and weight loss

9

How does leishmaniasis spread?

Bite by sandflies

10

How is leishmaniasis diagnoses?

Histology of biopsy material

11

What are examples of helminths?

Roundworms (nematodes)

Tapeworms (cestodes)

Flukes (trematodes)

12

What is the scientific name of roundworms?

Nematodes

13

How are nematodes diagnosed?

Pressing adhesive tape againt perianal region in the morning

14

Where are nematodes ova seen?

In microscopy

15

How are nematodes transmitted?

Faecal-oral route

16

What is a common nematode and what does it do?

Ascaris lumbricoides which is a mass of worms that may obstruct the intestine or bile duct

17

What are common cestodes?

Taenia saginata (beef)

Taenia solium (pork)

18

How do cestodes spread?

Larvae cysts ingested in meat

19

Where are cestodes ova seen?

In stool

20

What is a species of cestodes carried by dogs and transmitted by humans ingesting eggs?

Echinococcus spp

21

What is the scientific name of flukes?

Tramatodes

22

What is the scientific name of tapeworms?

Cestodes

23

What are common kinds of trematodes?

Schistosomes species:

 

S.haematobium (bladder)

S.mansoni (intestinal)

S.japonicum (intestinal)

24

Where are high rates of trematodes found?

Near fresh water

25

What is an important thing in the life cycle of trematodes?

Snails

26

What are examples of arthropods?

Lice

Ticks

Mites

27

What are protozoa?

Microscopic once celled organisms that can be free living or parasitic in nature

28

How are protozoa transmitted?

Faecal-oral route (live in human intestine)

Arthropod vector (live in blood or tissue)

29

Where do protozoa that are transmitted by the faecal-oral route live?

Human intestine

30

Where do protozoa that are trasmitted by a arthropod vector live?

Blood or tissue