What are different kinds of drug delivery?
What are different forms of drugs that may be given to patients?
Tablets or capsules
Solutions or suspensions
Ointments and creams
Suppositories (insterted into rectum or vagina)
Pessaries (inserted into vagina)
What are soppositories?
Drugs that are inserted into the rectum or the vagina
What are pessaries?
Drugs that are inserted into the vagina
What are things that determine which drug delivery system to use?
Dose of the drug being given
Frequency of administration
Timing of administration
Disease being treated
What do we consider when deciding what dose to use?
Impaired renal function
Impaired liver function
Age and weight
Disease to be treated
What is oral medication absorbed by?
The GI tract:
What are solutions and suspension useful for?
Giving medicine to the young, elderly and patients with swollowing difficulties
What is an advantage of using solutions or suspensions?
Absorbed extrememly rapidly
What does the absorption of solutions or suspensions depend on?
Gastric emptying and is more rapid from the small intestine
Where is absorption from solutions or suspensions most rapid from?
What is the rate limiting step for the absorption of tablets?
Dissolution (tablet breakdown)
What are the advantages of using tablets or capsules?
Accuracy of dose
Ease of mass production
What do enteric coated tablets do?
Delay the disintegration of the tablet until it reaches the small instestine
Why would enteric coated tablets be used?
Protect the drug from stomach acid
Protect the stomach from the drug
What are prolonged release formulations useful for?
Most disorders required prolonged therapy
Maintains drug level within a therapeutic range
Reduces the need for frequent dosing
Compliance is improved
What kind of therapy do most disorders require?
What are different kinds of prolonged release drugs?
Parenteral preparations (intermuscular injections)
What can you not do when using prolonged release drugs?
Swap someone from one form to another
What are prodrugs?
Synthesised inactive derivatives of an active drug which requires to be metabolically activated after administration
What are the advantages of using prodrugs?
Prolongation of duration of action
Avoidance of the drug in the gut
What are buccal and sublingual adminstration ideal for?
Drugs which have an extensive first pass metabolism
What are sublingual tablets?
Ones which dissolve slowly under the tongue
Who is the rectal route often used for?
Patients unable to swollow
What is an advantage of using the rectal route?
Bypass first pass metabolism
How may drugs from the rectal route act?
How do drugs from the vaginal route act?
What do drugs from the vaginal route include?
What do injection based drug delivery systems include?
What do injection based drugs provide?
Fast systematic effects by bypassing first pass metabolism