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Flashcards in Outline of Disease Processes Deck (48)
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1

What are most cancers (in terms of how many cells they arise from)?

Monoclonal (arise from a single cell)

2

What does monoclonal mean?

Arise from a single cell

3

How do cancer cells divide?

Using the mitosis stages just like normal cells

4

What are the stages of mitosis in cancer cells?

1) Interphase

2) Prophase

3) Metaphase

4) Anaphase

5) Telophase

6) Daughter cells

5

Why do cancer cells have uncontrollable growth?

They have no regulation

6

What are some properties of cancer cell that is different to normal cells?

Loss of contact inhibition

Increase in growth factor secretion

Increase in oncogene expression

Loss of tumour suppresor genes

7

What can you say about tumour suppresor genes in relation to cancer?

Cancer is caused by a loss of tumour suppresor genes

8

What can you say about cancer and oncogene expression?

Increase in oncogene expression leads to cancer

9

What are properties of normal cells that are different to cancer cells?

Oncogene expression is rare

Intermittent or co-ordinated growth factor secretion

Presence of tumour suppressor genes

10

What is carcinogenesis?

The initiation of cancer formation

11

What are the 2 stages of carcinogenesis?

Pre-clinical cancer

Clinical cancer

12

What are the steps of pre clinical cancer in carcinogenesis?

Initiation

Promotion

Tumour growth

13

What happens during clinical cancer in carcinogenesis?

Tumour progression

14

When are cancers detectable?

Only after a certain amount of cells are present

15

What are the causes of cancer seperated into?

Initiation

Promotion

Progression

16

What can initiate cancer?

Chemical

Physical

Viral

17

What is related to the promotion of cancer?

Growth factors

Oncogenes

18

What is related to the progression of cancer?

Metastasis

19

What are some chemicals that can initiate cancer?

Hydrocarbons such as soot and tarts

Analine dyes (cause bladder cancer)

Aflatoxin (causes liver cancer)

Nitrogen mustard (causes leukaemia)

Alcohol and smoking (causes lung, head and neck, and gastrointestinal cancers)

20

What are physical causes of cancer?

Ionising radiation

Mechanisms (chromosome translocation, gene amplification, oncogene activation)

21

What are some mechanisms that are considered a physical cause of cancer?

Chromosome translocation

Gene amplification

Oncogene activation

22

What are some virus causes of cancer?

Herpes virus (causes Burkitt's lymphoma-cervical cancer)

Hepatitis B (causes liver cancer)

Papilomavirus (causes adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma)

23

What do oncogenes do?

Promote cells to become cancerous

24

How do oncogenes promote cells to become cancerous?

Transformation genes

Positive regulators of growth

25

What are growth factors that promote cancer growth?

Peptide molecules that:

Regulate cell growth and function
Bind to cell membrane receptors
Stimulate activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways

26

What do polypeptide molecules that are growth factors promoting cancer do?

Regulate cell growth and function

Bind to cell membrane receptors

Stimulate activation of intracellular transduction pathways

27

What do oncogenes cause in the surrounding cells?

The cells to undergo growth by paracrine stimulation

28

What does not happen in oncogene expression that normally happens?

The feedback loop that stops growth at a certain point

29

What is the most common altered tumour suppresor gene?

P53

30

What is the normal function of P53?

Transcriptional regulator

Promotes DNA repair

Apoptosis

Differentiation