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Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 5 Deck (38)
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1

What is carcinogenesis due to?

Geographic and environment factors

Age

Heredity

2

What are the 2 categories of normal genes that can be disrupted and cause cancer?

Tumour suppressor genes (anti-oncogenes)

Proto-oncogenes

3

What are tumour suppressor genes?

Normal growth inhibitor genes that regulate:

 

Mitosis (Rb)

Apoptosis (p53)

DNA repair

4

What are anti-oncogenes also known as?

Tumour suppressor genes

5

What does p53 regulate?

Apoptosis

6

What is a key event in tumour formation?

Uncontrolled proliferation, due to cell cycle dysfunction, due to loss of tumour suppressor gene function

7

What are other mutations that can directly impact the performance of pRb?

CKD4

Cyclin D

CDKIs

8

What does absent or inactive pRb do?

Releases the brake on the cell cycle, causing cell proliferation

9

What are the causes of retinoblastomas?

Sporadic

Inherited

10

What are examples of inherited predispositions to cancer?

Familial retinoblastoma

Familial adenomatous polyposis of colon

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

Neurofibromatosis

Van Hippel-Lindou Syndrome

11

What are some known inherited mutations of anti-oncogenes?

APC

p53

Rb

p16

BRCA1/2

12

What does an inherited mutation of APC cause?

FAP colon cancer

13

What does an inherited mutation of Rb cause?

Retinoblastoma

14

What does an inherited mutation of p16 cause?

Malignant melanoma

15

What does an inherited mutation of BRCA1/2 cause?

Breast cancer

16

What is the function of APC?

Signal transduction

17

What is the function of p16?

Cell cycle/apoptosis after DNA damage

18

What is the function of Rb?

Cell cycle regulation

19

What is the function of p16?

Inhibits CDKs

20

What is the function of BRCA1/2?

DNA repair

21

What are proto-oncogenes?

Normal genes coding for normal proteins that regulate growth

22

What are some functions of proto-oncogenes?

Growth factors

Growth factor receptors

Signal transduction

23

What are oncogenes derived from?

Proto-oncogenes

24

What are oncogenes activated by?

Alteration of proto-oncogene structure

Dysregulation of proto-oncogene expression

25

What can cause an alteration of proto-oncogene structure?

Point mutation

Chromosome rearrangements and translocation

26

What do oncogenes generate?

Active oncogene products

27

What are active oncogene products?

Growth factors

Growth factor receptors

Proteins involved in signal transduction

Nuclear regulatory proteins

Cell cycle regulators

28

How many copies of an oncogene do you need to cause cause?

Only one, not two

29

What is the process of viral carcinogenesis?

1) Virus inserts genome near a host proto-oncogene

2) Viral promoter or other transcription regulation element cause proto-oncogene overexpression

30

What is the relationship between reteroviruses and carcinogenesis?

Reteroviruses insert an oncogene into host DNA causing cell division