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Flashcards in Drug Absorption Deck (62)
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1

What is pharmaceutical process?

Getting the drug into the patient

2

What is pharmacokinetic process?

Getting the drug to the site of action

3

What is pharmacodynamics process?

Producing the correct pharmacological effect

4

What is therapeutic process?

Producing the correct therapeutic effect

5

What are the 4 basic factors that determine pharmacokinetics?

Absorption

Distribution

Metabolism

Elimination

6

A knowledge of the factors of pharmacokinetics enables an understanding of what?

Dosage

Drug administration

Drug handling

Patient variability

Potential for harm

7

What must most drugs do to have biological action?

Enter the blood stream and be distributed to a site of action

8

What are different methods of administration?

Oral

Intra-venous (IV)

Subcutaneous (applied under the skin)

Intramuscular

Other GI (sublingual, rectal)

Inhalation

Nasal

Transdermal (delivered across the skin)

9

What is absorption?

Process of movement of unchanged drug from the site of adminstration to the systematic circulation

10

What does absorption depend on?

Properties of the drug

Dosage used

Anatomy and physiology of the drug absorption site

11

What is the relationship between plasma concentration and the therapeutic response?

There is a correlation between the two

12

What is Cmax?

The peak concentration

13

What is T max?

The time to peak concentration

14

What does the area under the curve of a concentration/time graph represent?

Total amount of drug that reaches systematic circulation

15

What does Tmax tell us?

How quickly the drug is going to get into our circulation to produce an effect

16

What does Cmax tell us?

Whether the effect of a drug may be toxic or ineffective

17

What does increasing the dose do in relation to Tmax and Cmax?

Does not increase Tmax but increases Cmax

18

What is the therapeutic range?

The range of concentration that a drug is active

19

What happens above the therapeutic range?

The drug is toxic

20

What happens below the therapeutic range?

The drug is ineffective

21

What is bioavailability?

The amount of a drug that gets into circulation and is available for biological activity

22

What is the bioavailablity of a drug given intra-venously?

100% bioavailability

23

How is bioavailability determined?

By giving the drug and working out the toal amount over time then comparing this to the IV route

24

What are some factors that affect bioavaiability?

Formulation

Ability of drug to pass physical barriers

Gastrointestinal effects

First pass metabolism

25

What impacts a drugs ability to cross physical barriers?

Particle size

Lipid solubility

pH and ionisation

26

What must a drug be to dissolve in lipids?

Unionised

27

What does first pass metabolism refer to?

Removal of the drug by the liver

28

What is bioavailability used to work out?

The best dosage of a drug for the desired effect

29

What are different kinds of transport across physical barriers?

Passive diffusion

Filtration

Bulk flow

Active transport

Facilitated transport

Ion-pair transport

Endocytosis

30

What does the degree of ionisation depend on for a drug and why?

The environment because most drugs are weak acids or bases