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Flashcards in Chronic Inflammation 2 Deck (44)
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1

What is granulomatous inflammation characterised by?

Presence of granulomas in tissues and organs

2

What is granulomatous inflammation stimulated by?

Indigestable antigen

3

What can the cause of granulomatous inflammation be described as?

Idiopathic (no known cause)

4

What does idiopathic mean?

No known cause

5

What are granulomas composed of?

Aggregates of epitheloid macrophages in tissue

May contain giant cells

May be surrounded by lymphocytes

Contains neutrophils and eosinophils

6

What may granulomas surround?

Dead tissue

7

What are granulomas the response to?

Indigestable antigen

8

What kinds of hypersensitive reaction are many granulomas?

Type IV

9

What are giant cells?

Fusion of macrophages to form larger cells (larger cytoplasms and multinucleated)

10

What are different kinds of granulomas?

Langans type

Foreign body type

Silicone associated

Warthin-Finkeldy type

11

Where are Langhans type granulomas commonly found?

In tuberculosis

12

What are properties of Langhams type granulomas?

Peripheral rim of nuclei

Large eosinophillic cytoplasm

13

What do foreign body type granulomas contain?

Neutrophils

Pus

Giant cells

14

How are the nuclei arranged in foreign body type granulomas?

Scattered around the cytoplasm

15

What are silicone associated granulomas due to?

Rupture of silicone implants, vacouls contain leaked silicone

16

Where are Wartin-Finkeldy type granulomas found?

Measles

17

How are the nuclei arranged in Warthin-Finkeldy granuloma?

Clustered in the centre

18

What are examples of infectious granulomatous diseases?

Tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis)

Leprosy (mycrobacteria leprae)

Syphilis (treponema pallidum)

19

What is tuberculosis caused by?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

20

What is leprosy caused by?

Mycobacterium leprae

21

What is syphilis caused by?

Treponema pallidum

22

What are examples of non-infective granulomas?

Rheumatoid disease (tissue specific autoimmune disease, targets synovial fluid in joints)

Sarcoidosis

Crohn's disease (chronic inflammatory bowel disease)

23

What is Rheumatoid disease?

Tissue specific autoimmune disease, targets synovial fluid in joints

24

What is Crohn's disease?

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease

25

What is the process of wound healing?

1) Phase of acute inflammation

2) Granulation tissue formation

3) Local angiogenesis (new vessels grow)

4) Fibrosis and scar formation

26

What does ideal surgical wound healing involve?

Healing by primary intention

Minimal gap

Small amount of granulation tissue

Small linear scar

27

What does healing of larger defects lead to?

Healing by secondary intention

Lots of granulation tissue ingrowth

Contraction and scarring

28

What is the detailed process of healing?

1) Injury, blood clot, acute inflammation, fibrin formation

2) Many growth factors and cytokines involved

3) Granulation tissue growth - angiogenesis

4) Phagocytosis of fibrin

5) Mycofibroblasts move in and lay down collagen

6) Contraction of scar

7) Re-epithelialisation

29

What are factors that help wound healing?

Cleanliness

Apposition of edges (no haemotoma)

Sound nutrition

Metabolic stability and normality

Normal inflammatory and coagulation mechanisms

Local mediators

30

What are things that would impair wound healing?

Dirty, gaping wound, large haematoma

Poorly nourished, lack of vitamines A and C

Abnormal metabolism, diabetes

Inhibition of angiogenesis