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1

What is chronic inflammation?

Inflammation in which the cell population is especially:

 

Lymphocytes

Plasma cells

Macrophages

2

What does chronic inflammation feature?

Tissue or organ damage

Loss of function

Healing and repair involving granulation tissue and scarring

3

What may chronic inflammation arise from?

Primary pathology

Acute inflammation

4

What are the clinical presentations of chronic inflammation?

No specific 'sore bit'

Weight loss

Loss of function

5

When does chronic inflammation ocur after acute inflammation?

When there are large volumes of damage

Inability to remove debris

6

What is the mechanism of granulation tissue?

1) Capillaries grow into inflammatory mass

2) Access of plasma proteins

3) Macrophages travel in from blood and tissue

4) Fibroblasts lay down collagen to repair damaged tissue

5) Collagen replaces inflammatory exudate

6) Contracts and pulls together

7

What are the outcomes of granulation tissue?

Fibrous tissue (scar)

Fibrosis can cause adhesion between loops of bowel which is a problem

Can progess to chronic inflammation

8

What may primary chronic inflammation arise due to?

Autoimmune disease

Lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, fibrosis

Material resistant to digestion

Exogenous substances

Endogenous substances

9

What are examples of autoimmune diseases that can cause primary chronic inflammation?

Thyroiditis

Rheumatoid disease

10

What are autoimmune diseases?

Where antibodies are directed against out owen cell and tissue components, leading to damage or destruction of organs

11

What are some materials resistant to digestion?

Mycobacteria and viruses who's cell walls are resistant to enzymes

12

What are some exogenous substances?

Sultures, metal and plastic such as joint replacements or glass

13

What do exogenous substances not provoke?

Immune response

14

What are some endogenous substances?

Necrotic tissue

Keratin, hair

15

What can not easily be done to endogenous substances?

They cannot easily be phagacytosed

16

What are cells involved in chronic inflammation?

Lymphocytes

Plasma cells

Macrophages

Fibroblasts

17

What are plasma cells and what do they do?

They are differentiated B cells that produce antibodies

18

What are the tissue components of chronic inflammation?

Granulation tissue

Collagen

19

What are different B cell mechanisms?

Differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies

Facilitate immune response

Act with macrophages (antigen presenting capacity)

Immune memory

20

What are different T cell mechanisms?

Producing cytokines

Produce interferons

Damage and kill other cells, destroy antigens using granule proteins

21

What do cytokines released from T cells do?

Attract and hold macrophages

Activates macrophages

Activates other cells such as lymphocytes

Changes vessel permeability

22

What do interferons do?

Antiviral efect

Attract and stimulate other cells

 

23

What do natural killer cells do?

Destroy antigens and cells by using granule proteins

24

What immune system are natural killer cells apart of?

Innate immune system, non-specific

25

What are mechanisms of macrophages?

Remove debris

Antigen presenting cell for immune system

26

What are macrophages formed from?

Bone marrow

27

What does the life cycle of macrophages involve?

Monocyte

Histiocytic

Activated macrophage

Epitheloid cell

Giant cell

28

What are fibroblasts?

Motile cells that make and assemble structural proteins such as different collagens

29

What are the outcomes of chronic inflammation?

Ongoing tissue damage and destruction

Insidious loss of function

Cellular and stromal response (granulation tissue and angiogenesis)

Scarring and fibrosis

Granuloma formation (mass of granulation tissue)

30

What is an adverse effect of scaring?

It can lead to loss of cuntion due to not being able to be stretched