Flashcards in China's 1 Child Policy Deck (20)
What was China's population?
What was encouraged in china during the 20th century?
Having as many children as possible for patriotic reasons
How much was population growing by?
55 million every three years
14 million every year
In 1963 what was the average amount of children born per woman?
China regarded a growing population as a way to get fast and economic development
What changed in the 1970's?
Concern over the growth rate grew as the birth rate was 31 per 1000 and average family size was 3 children per family
Why was the policy needed?
Continuing population growth would result in
Lack of food/ drinking water
Over cultivation/ famine
Not enough services
Air land and water pollution
What happened in 1979?
Th state forcibly introduced the one child policy
What was the marriageable age set to?
20 for women and 22 for men
What did people have to apply
To get married and to have a child
(Must be sterilised after first child or abort future pregnancies )
What was given to couples who conformed?
5-10% salary increase (urban)
Bigger land allocation (rural)
Extended maternity leave
Paid medical expenses
Priority housing and free education for child
Ethnic minority's (only applied to Han Race)
What happened to those who didn't conform?
Made to pay large fines
Deprived of benefits
Family allowances withdrawn
Pressure to abort second pregnancy (including cuts to colleagues salary)
Who were the granny police?
Older women of a community who carried out regular checks on couples of child bearing age
Accompanied women on contraception appointments to ensure they attended
What were three benefits of the policy?
The famine that was expected never happened
Population growth has slowed enough for there to be enough jobs
Increased technology and exploitation of natural resources increased standard of living for many
What are three problems of the policy?
Women had to abort as late as 9 months
Government had control over people's private lives
Many girls places in orphanages or left to die as Chinese society prefers boys
What were the main exceptions to the policy?
Having a first child with a disability that is likely to result in inability to work
Risk of losing the family line without a second child
Rural families with real difficulties
What was successful about the policy?
Population growth slowed sufficiently to allow enough food and jobs
China's birth rate fell from 31 to 19 in twenty years
Estimated that population is 300 million less than it would have been without the policy
Why is the policy unlikely to be relaxed anymore?
600million ( half the population) still live on less than $2 per day
What other changes were made to the policy?
Two only children that married could have two
If you could pay the fine you could have 2
Farmers could have 2 if first is disabled or girl