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Flashcards in Hard V Soft Engineering Deck (14)
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What is hard engineering?

Man made structures build to control the flow of rivers reducing flooding


What is soft engineering?

Schemes set up using knowledge of a river and its processes to reduce the effects of flooding


What is a dam and reservoir?

Huge walls built across rivers usually in the upper course
A reservoir is an artificial lake formed behind the dam


What is one benefit and one disadvantage of a dam?

Reservoirs that store water especially during periods of heavy rain which reduces risk of flooding

Dams are very expensive to build and can flood already existing settlements


What is channel straightening?

The rivers course is straightened, meanders are cut out by building artificial straight channels


What is one benefit and one disadvantage of channel straightening?

Water moves out of area more quickly as it doesn't have to travel as far, reducing risk of flooding

Flooding may happen downstream of the straightened channel instead as flood water is carried there faster


What is a flood warning?

The environment agency warns people about possible floods though tv radio newspapers and internet


What is one advantage and one disadvantage of flood warnings?

The impact of flooding is reduced warning give people time to move possessions upstairs and evacuate

Doesn't stop a flood from happening and people may not have access to the warning


What is preparation?

Buildings are modified to reduce the amount of damage a flood can cause


What is a benefit and disadvantage of preparation?

The impact of flooding is reduced as buildings are less damaged
Preparation doesn't guarantee safety from a flood


What is flood plain zoning?

Restrictions prevent building on parts of a flood plain that are most likely to flood


What is an a benefit and disadvantage of flood plain zoning?

The risk of flooding is reduced as impermeable surfaces aren't created
Expansion of urban areas is limited if there aren't other suitable building sites


What is 'do nothing'?

No money is spent on new engineering methods, flooding is a natural process and people should accept the risks


What is a benefit and disadvantage of doing nothing?

The river flood and eroded material is deposited on the flood plain making farm lands more fertile
The risk of flooding and the impacts aren't reduced

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